Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Health Administarion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Health Administarion - Essay Example The lowest level of the hierarchy, physiological needs, should be the first to be met by an individual. An organization should ensure that employees have access to adequate shelter, food, and clothing. When the physiological needs have been adequately satisfied, safety of individuals will be the next on the priorities. In the case where an individual is residing within the organization’s premises, the management should ensure that they are secure, both financial and physically. Financial security will imply management undertaking strategic measures to ensure they invest in activities that will secure their future financial obligations (Miller and McBrewster 86). The need for belonging is an interpersonal need. Individuals need to be loved and have a cordial relationship with their families and friends. The organization should provide their employees time to intermingle with their family members. Human beings need to feel a sense of acceptance and belonging in the society. The fourth need is self esteem. Individuals need to have s stable self-esteem and self-respect in the society. As such, the management should issue measures that will necessitate competency, mastery, freedom and independence, and self-confidence. Instigating these measures to its employees, the management will ensure that self-esteem needs are realized. Finally, the topmost level in the hierarchy is self-actualization. Individuals strive to achieve these needs. This level will be achieved when the other needs such as physiological, safety, belonging, and self esteem are

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Definition of learning organization culture

Definition of learning organization culture Introduction A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. Ajay Agarwal adds learning in an organization means the continuous testing of experience, and the transformation of that experience into knowledge- accessible to the whole organization, and relevant to its core purpose. Thus, it is derived that learning in an organization sought to continuously improve employees knowledge and unlock the potential of the employees in order to achieve organizations goals. In line with creating efficiency, David Garvin stated that effective learning organization should consist of five learning activities; systematic problem solving, experimentation with new approaches, learning from their own experience and past history, learning from the experiences and best practices of others, and transferring of knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization. Systematic problem solving provides analytical tools eliminating assumptions during problem solving stage. This element insists on solving problems based on information acquired. Experimentation involves the ongoing development of new knowledge with close reliance to innovation of employees. With experimentation, learning from own experience and past history can be done. Employees can learn from their own strengths and weaknesses utilizing the elements for the success of further projects. Learning from others implies the use of others experience and cultivate them into their own thus eliminates the possibility recurrence of failures. Transferring of knowledge is learning through the information of the organization through reports and training and development programme allowing employees to development their skills in line with organizations mission. An effective learning organization will cultivate these activities in developing their employees ensuring maximization of learning. As learning aims directly to provide stable growth in a human, it is inevitable that there are factors that influence the effectiveness of learning organization culture. Sally Sambrook, 2003, categories these in four categories; motivation, HRD, culture and pragmatics. Motivation Psychologically, human behavior towards learning is closely related to the motivation available. Thus, manager plays a vital role in the learning behavior of the employee. Motivation can bring out the enthusiasm of employees to learn effective. Sally Sambrook, 2003, derived the lack of motivation can be due to the following reasons: 1. the lack of time (due to the organisation of work and work pressures); 2. the lack of reward for learning (at the organisational and HR functional level); 3. the lack of enthusiasm in the concept of the learning organisation or training and development in general; and 4. the lack of confidence to learn and/or take responsibility for learning (at a personal level). Thus, the skill of manager in motivating the employees is interrelated to the effectiveness. The involvement of manager in the learning process of the employees can create an interest and define the purpose of learning in the eyes of the employees. HRD In the HRD section, Sally Sambrook, 2003, proposed that often employees lack understanding towards to HRD objectives. Thus, employees had less clarity towards the purpose of learning and the procedures and the objectives in regards to the development plan. The lack of understanding is closely related to the communication of the organization towards the employees. Miscommunication often brings down the learning purpose thus creating confusion and diversified learning environment to the employees. Culture The learning culture of individual reflects the enthusiasm of individual to learn. Individual who possess a learning habit tends to learn things faster. However, employees have the problem in developing this culture. Jones and Hendry, 1992, found that a learning-oriented culture enhances successful learning, whereas it is very difficult to create learning situations in companies with cultures characterised by bureaucracy and inter-functional rivalries and politics. Thus, the capability of organization to develop learning culture will determine the effectiveness of HRD. Pragmatics Sally Sambrook, 2003, identified that the lack of time and HRD resources is the main issue pertaining to the effectiveness of learning. The lack of learning time caused by the work pressure of fulfilling specific task, intervene the time for employees to learn. As a result, employees find little availability towards the actual learning that the organization had implemented. Moreover, the lack of investment in the HRD proves less initiative towards developing the employees. References

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Truman Show Essay -- essays research papers

The Truman Show is a film which has been developed through a range of images. Peter Weir has creatively directed a film portraying the media and its impact on society. Within this film we see the effectiveness of techniques, which include camera angles, framing, shot types, camera movement, style of music, costuming and sequencing. By using a range of different techniques Weir is able to create emotive images and portray three different worlds to the audience. Image is everything in today’s society appearance of things have become more important that what they really are and these images are being constantly fed to us through the media. Image has both a positive and negative influence on the individual but most people have been drawn into the stereotypical world. Truman Burbank is the star of a television show who lives a perfect life - stable job, wife and friends to support him but he is unbeknown to the world which revolves around him 24 hours a day. Truman is portrayed as a uncomplicated, affable and contented insurance salesman. His conservative costuming reflects this as he is clean shaven and dressed in light neat fitting clothing. Distortion of truth and constructed images are key themes portrayed in the movie this is characterised by the drowning of Truman’s father which was staged purely to implant a fear in Truman’s mind of going on or over the water. This is the way that Christof could control Truman from finding the truth and leaving the island by boat or bridg...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Male Versus Female

The battle of the sexes has been going on since the beginning of mankind. Women were once stereotyped as mere housewives, and the men were labeled as breadwinners. Over time, the title given to the so-called weaker sex has evolved up to par with that of men. Now, they almost stand on equal footing as them. When it comes to leadership though, I believe that females outshine their male counterparts in almost every measure. According to Rochelle Sharpe (2003), it has been approximately twenty-five years since women have started pouring into the labor force and have been trying to be more like men in every way. They now wear power suits and go out on golf luncheons with board executives, but despite them doing all the copying, new research is beginning suggest that men ought to be the ones doing more of the imitating. As discovered in an in-depth performance evaluation conducted on the year 2002 by Hagberg Consulting Group in Foster City, California – out of the four hundred twenty-five high-level executives that were evaluated, the women executives got higher ratings on fourty-two of the fifty-two skills measured. Despite all of this growing progress for females everywhere, it is still obvious that men have continued to dominate a majority of the business world. According to the Labor Department, as of the year 2004, only two of the nations five hundred biggest companies have female CEO’s and of the one thousand largest corporations, only six were being run by women. The reason for this male dominance is simply because women are not given an equal stand as men when it comes to job opportunities. Some businesses view women only as workhorses, or in a sense that they are well suited for demanding careers in middle management, but not for prime jobs. As a result of this, most women get stuck in jobs that involve human resources or public relations – posts that rarely lead to the top. (Sharpe, 2003) Both men and women have different styles of leadership, and the actual difference lies between how much listening is done. When it comes to women, they are naturally more open about sharing information and take the time to communicate with people and to hear what their inputs are. It is through this that they are able to gather more information that they can effectively analyze then implement into a plan that uses the best of the ideas presented. On the other hand, men do not take time to stop and smell the flowers – instead, they have the tendency to go straight to their point of view and present it in a ‘as a matter of fact’ manner. This way, they save time and have everyone agreeing to their plan of action. Well this is because men are not as flexible or willing to interact with others. (Grenberg, 2004) As a result, male leaders may actually tend to force their perspective and use their position influence others. Despite this being the quicker way of getting things done in a non-sloppy manner, it ironically does not make it as efficient as the way the opposite sex works. The manner that females work is by most of the time, simply listening. They take the initiative to gather ideas, research, and so forth from the people they are working with. They do not force their ideas on them, but rather, improve them with teamwork. It is because of this that they are able to produce better outputs and are more effective leaders than males. From the very start, women have often been associated with being a mother figure; therefore, even female leaders tend to be seen more as caring mothers rather than strong-willed heads. In relation to this, there are companies who assume that people skills are not business skills, which basically undermines their strengths. (Fletcher, 2002). Men though, are then associated with being the breadwinners of the family – a person who knows how to lead. Male leaders are seen as powerful members of society who have a good head on their shoulders and are tough enough to handle anything that comes their way. The notion that women are not as tough, is only something that is assumed. Although the majority may not be as physically strong as their counterpart, they are on the same level in terms of intellect. Women are associated with mothers, which means that they know how to take care of those working for them. Because they know how to deal with the most energetic of children, they can put their motherly instincts into motivating people – they are gifted with inborn people skills. According to the book Disappearing Acts: Gender, Power and Relational Practice at Work, written by Joyce Fletcher in 2002, employees that feel cared about by their bosses or are inspired by them, often produce higher-quality work; and supervisors who know how to deal with conflicts get better results. The conclusion can only be that by taking care of their employees, they are not only taking charge of them subtly but producing greater output in the process. In the present, the number of women that posses high-ranking positions may only add up to a mere fraction of the male population in the same position but it does not prove that the latter is more competent but rather that the former is being viewed as incompetent. The never-ending bias against female leaders has been going on forever, but they have been fighting back little by little. Women have come a long way from being a gender with no equality with the other sex, a gender that had no rights to vote, and a gender that had been stereotyped as a housewife. They have fought hard all these decades, and still continue to fight for the equality that they deserve. But despite the evident inequality, I still believe that female leaders outshine their male counterparts in almost every measure.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

What’s wrong with Walmart?

Adding to the articles provided in the class, I chose â€Å"Walmart Mexico Bribery Case† and â€Å"Walmart Offers Jobs to Veterans†. Reading these articles, I once more thought that Walmart is a huge company. Walmart employs about 1. 4 million people in the United States. They operate more than 10,800 retail units under 69 banners in 27 countries. In 2013, the magazine ‘Fortune’ ranked Walmart as a biggest company in the United States. These numbers all show that Walmart is a large company and it is hard to operate. Walmart have a central office in Arkansas, and the chief executive and board member make all the important decisions and policy of the company. However, if the company has so many employees and the shops, it is difficult to control all the employees. Thus in the ‘Pollutant Dumping Case’, the Walmart California store improperly disposed hazardous waste. The central office had a comprehensive and industry-leading hazardous waste program, but this issue made it clear that some of the workers were not aware how to handle hazardous waste. Additionally, the other article was about the Walmart protest movement. At first, I did not know about the OUR Walmart, but I was surprised to find this organization. I could not find out how big the organization is, but the existence of OUR Walmart itself tells us that Walmart have many workers and the worker’s opinion is hard to reach to the chief executive. As a result they make protest movements to claim for better wages and improved working conditions. All in all, the recent Walmart issue is the evidence that the central office is struggling to control all of the shops in the U. S. and the other countries. All of the big companies with shops in many locations will suffer to manage the workers. To solve this problem it is necessary to make manual, guidelines, instructions, hotlines, help lines, and audits. If the company failed to make these systems and have a high commitment with the top manager, the company will likely to corrupt or make mistakes like Walmart.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar essays

The Life of Gaius Julius Caesar essays Gaius Julius Caesar was born in a working class quarter of the great city of Rome on July 13, 100 BC. In Rome a newborn child is laid on the ground by his/her mother then their father has the option to pick up and accept responsibility for the child or to leave the child. If the baby is left it could be killed, raised by another member of the family, or rescued by a slave trader/owner. Luckily for Gaius, when he was laid on the floor his father welcomed him into his family. On the ninth day of his life little baby Gaius got his name. Caesars full name is composed of three names. All three names have a symbolic meaning to his family. His first and last name was that of his father gens (clan), and on his mothers side he belongs to the Aurelian gens. Each clan has a past all in itself. His fathers clan, Julian, claims to be descended from Venus. And on his mothers side a rich plebian family is the staple of the clan. His uncle (by marriage to his Aunt Julia) was the famous general Gaius Marius. He was the leader of the Populares and held the position of consul (highest political office) for seven consecutive terms, while Caesars dad wasnt even a praetor (2nd in rank to consul). His uncle saw to it that young Caesar was appointed flamen dialis. This was one of an archaic priesthood with no power. This accompanied by Julius marriage to Cornelia in 84BC identified him with his Uncles extremist politics. Cornelia was the daughter of Cinna, one of Mariuss associates who was also a radical. In 82 BC when Lucaius Cornelius Sulla was made dictator he ordered a list of enemies to be killed. Caesar, because of his relation to Marius, was ordered to divorce Cornelia. He refused to do so & found it necessary to leave Rome. When Caesar ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Growing Up Gay Essays - Sexual Orientation, Free Essays, Term Papers

Growing Up Gay Essays - Sexual Orientation, Free Essays, Term Papers Growing Up Gay The unprecedented growth of the gay community in recent history has transformed our culture and consciousness, creating radically new possibilities for people to come out and live more openly as homosexuals(Herdt 2). Before the 1969s Stonewall riot in New York, homosexuality was a taboo subject. Research concerning homosexuality emphasized the etiology, treatment, and psychological adjustment of homosexuals. Times have changed since 1969. Homosexuals have gained great attention in arts, entertainment, media, and politics. Yesterdays research on homosexuality has expanded to include trying to understand the different experiences and situations of homosexuals (Ben-Ari 89-90). Despite the transition, little consideration has been given to understanding the growing population of gay adolescents. 25% of American families are likely to have a gay child (Hidalgo 24); In the United States, three million adolescents are estimated to be homosexual. Yet, American society still ignores gay adolescents. Majority of children are raised in heterosexual families, taught in heterosexual establishments, and put in heterosexual peer groups. Gay adolescents often feel forced by parents to pass as heterosexually normal (Herdt 2). As a result, homosexual teens hide their sexual orientation and feelings, especially from their parents. Limited research conducted on gay young adults on disclosure to parents generally suggests that disclosure is a time of familial crisis and emotional distress. Very few researchers argue that disclosure to parents results in happiness, bringing parents and children closer (Ben-Ari 90). The debate over homosexuality as nature or nurture dominates most topics about homosexuality. People often confuse the nature/nurture issue with the development of gay identity. In fact, the nature/nurture argument plays a small, insignificant role concerning gay youths (Walling 11). Homosexual identity is the view of the self as homosexual in association with romantic and sexual situations (Troiden 46) Many researchers have either discussed or created several models or theories concerning the development of homosexual identity. However, the most prominent is Troidens sociological four-stage model of homosexual identity formation. Dr. Richard R. Troiden describes the development of homosexual identity in four stages: sensitization, identity confusing, identity assumption, and commitment. During the stages of homosexual identity development, many gay adolescents encounter many preconceptions and assumptions regarding homosexuality. These assumptions are presumption of heterosexuality, presumption of inversion, and recognition of stigma (Herdt 4-5). Using Troidens model as a guide, the present paper examines the four stages of homosexual identity development as it affects both gay children and parents. Section one concentrates on the first two stages of homosexual identity formation and the ordeals gay adolescents and parents before disclosure. Section two explains the third and fourth stages of homosexual identity development. Finally, section three discusses parents reactions to the disclosure, and the relationship with their child thereafter. The Pre-Disclosure Period The first stage of homosexual identity development, sensitization, occurs before puberty. In the sensitization stage, gay adolescents experience feelings of being different and marginal from same gender peers (Troiden 50). Comments such as the following illustrate what boys feel during this stage: I had a keener interest in the arts; I never learned to fight; I just didnt feel I was like other boys. I was very fond of pretty things like ribbons and flowers and music; I was indifferent to boys games, like cops and robbers. I was more interested in watching insects and reflecting on certain things. (Durby 5) However, during this time, children do not associate feelings as being homosexual or heterosexual; these categories have no significance to pre-teens (Troiden 52). Gay youngsters and their parents encounter the presumption of heterosexuality. The heterosexual assumption starts during the sensitization stage; however, the effects can be longterm. The presumption of heterosexuals is the belief that being heterosexual is superior, heterosexual ethnocentricity Everyone is heterosexual; to be different is to be inferior (Herdt 5). American society has strict defined male and female roles. Conformity is highly valued. Going against conformity especially gender abnormality is viewed with derision and usually awarded with disgrace and contempt (Isay 30). What is important is the masculine/feminine dichotomy underlines heterosexual/homosexual dichotomy. Parents force gender conformity in elementary children and even pre-school children when children display nonconformist gender roles. Many parents fear that if their son is exposed to homosexuality or even the negative beliefs of homosexuality then their child might be

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Cranberry Morpheme Definition and Examples

Cranberry Morpheme Definition and Examples In morphology, a cranberry morpheme is a  morpheme (that is, a word element, like the cran- of cranberry) that occurs in only one word. Also called a unique morph(eme), blocked morpheme, and leftover morpheme. Similarly, a cranberry word is a word that occurs in only one phrase, such as the word intents in the phrase all intents and purposes. The term cranberry morpheme was coined by American linguist Leonard Bloomfield in Language (1933). These are other closely related and sometimes confused terms with cranberry morpheme: Bound Morpheme and Free MorphemeComplex WordIdiomRoot Compound and Synthetic Compound Examples and Observations The bound morphemes in neo-classical compounds have an identifiable meaning, but there are also morphemes that have no clear meaning. In the word cranberry, the part berry is identifiable, and this makes us interpret the word cranberry as denoting a particular kind of berry. Yet, cran- has no particular meaning. . . . This phenomenon of cranberry morphemes is widespread, and is to be expected since complex words can lexicalize and thus survive, even though one of their constituent morphemes has disappeared from the lexicon. . . .Cranberry morphemes like English cran- . . . thus form a problem for an exclusively meaning-based definition of the notion morpheme.(Geert Booij, The Grammar of Words: An Introduction to Morphology, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2007) Morphemes and Meaning Is it possible for a bound morpheme to be so limited in its distribution that it occurs in just one complex word? The answer is yes. This is almost true, for example, of the morpheme leg- read in legible . . .: at least in everyday vocabulary, it is found in only one other word, namely illegible, the negative counterpart of legible. And it is absolutely true of the morphemes cran-, huckle- and gorm- in cranberry, huckleberry and gormless. . . . A name commonly given to such bound morpheme is cranberry morpheme. Cranberry morphemes are more than just a curiosity, because they reinforce the difficulty of tying morphemes tightly to meaning. . . . (You may have noticed, too, that although blackberries are indeed blackish, strawberries have nothing obvious to do with straw; so, even if straw- in strawberry is not a cranberry morpheme, it does not by itself make any predictable semantic contribution in this word.)(Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy, An Introduction to English Morphology: Words and Their Structure. Edinburgh University Press, 2002) Is Cran- Truly a Cranberry Morpheme? [Peter] Hook reported that cran itself was not a cranberry morpheme: he had seen cranberry harvesting and could vouch for the abundance of cranes as spectator-participants in the process, hence the term cranberry.(Probal Dasgupta, Rephrasing the Question of Complex Predicates in Bangla: A Biaxial Approach. Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics: 2012, ed. by Rajendra Singh and Shishir Bhattacharja. Walter de Gruyter, 2012) The Once-Over An example [of a cranberry word], from many, is the word once-over. If you give someone or something the once-over you make a quick inspection, with a view to deciding on the merits of the person or whatever it may be. The word once-over clearly makes a semantic contribution to the expressions in which it occurs; its meaning, presumably, is quick inspection. To this extent, give someone/something the once-over is interpreted in accordance with the dictionary meaning of once-over. On the other hand, once-over is not freely available to occupy the N-slot of a noun phrase; the word is virtually restricted to occurring in the cited phrase. (Note, in this connection, the virtually obligatory use of the definite determiner.) The phrase, along with its conventional meaning, has to be learned as such.(John R. Taylor, The Mental Corpus: How Language is Represented in the Mind. Oxford University Press, 2012) More Examples of Cranberry Morphemes (or Bound Roots) The morphemes luke-, cran-, -ept, and -kempt . . . appear only in lukewarm, cranberry, inept, and unkempt. We dont use the term lukecold, nor do we use cran- anywhere other than attacked to berry, and we dont ever say He is an inept writer, but she is very ept, or Her hair looked kempt. So the rules that attach un- to -kempt or luke- to warm are not productive; they derive only these words. We will also define morphemes such as cran-, luke-, -ept, and -kempt as bound roots because they cannot stand alone as free morphemes and because they dont occur as affixes in other English words.(Kristin Denham and Anne Lobeck, Linguistics for Everyone. Wadsworth, 2010)

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Leadership Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Leadership - Research Paper Example Looking into the Trade Unions one will not fail to underscore the role they play in trying to air the grievances and opinions of junior workers (Thacker and Wayne, 1995). Through the trade union employees ensure change of policies and strategies in running a company e.g. better working conditions, efficiency and remuneration increment. The other of upward influence in an organization is when the junior staff engages in direct contact with the managers in tying to solve a pending issue. It should however be noted that this is more prevalent in an organization whose manager takes the participative style of leadership says Thacker and Wayne (1995). In this form a manager tries to consult in order to solve the various problems affecting their organization. It is therefore possible given the individual circumstance for there to be an upward influence in an organization more so in solving prevailing

Friday, October 18, 2019

Ethics and Social Responsibility Relevant to Facebook Essay

Ethics and Social Responsibility Relevant to Facebook - Essay Example The social networking sites operate at interpersonal levels. The communication involves the ethical and social considerations between friend to friend, parents to their children, employer to the employee, employee to the employee, doctor to patient, teacher to student, and buyer to sellers; in fact, it encompasses every human relationship which exists in the world. The ethics and the social responsibility related to the Facebook and how they are dealing with it shall be discussed in this paper. To take a deeper insight into the ethics and social responsibility of social networking sites, a brief history related to the social networking will be highlighted, regarding the information on how they have expanded. Definitions and history of social networking sites Social networking seems to be an ambiguous term used for such sites. Human beings are inherently social creatures. From the very start, they have developed different ways and modes to communicate with each other. They cannot live in complete isolation from each other. For this purpose, human beings have always facilitated and built structured social networks. These institutions and facilities included community clubs, public places, churches and communication technologies such as postal and courier system, telephone and telegraph system. However, with the passage of time and tremendous increase in technological advancement, they have started resorting to faster and quicker ways of communications in the form of information technology. Most of these are based on the software standards of Web 2.0 (Vallor 2012). Before the emergence of Web 2.0 standards, various forms of networking such as chat rooms, Bulletin Board System (BBS) and MUD’s (multi user’s dungeons) were being used for social interactions (Barnes 2001; Turkle 1995). These early social networking places worked typically as places of commercial, personal or academic exploitation. These were rather used for broad social purposes. The pur pose behind the emergence of Web 2.0 was to produce user-friendly, collaborative and communicative internet content. Though the initial aims of the developers were same as that of the previous social networking and internet but it evolved with the rapid changes in the technology. Social topography of the internet has been redefined by Web 2.0 social interfaces which built increased social networks between their users online as well as offline. This trend shifted the original function of internet from pseudonymous identities to formation of Sui Generis social networking (Ess 2011). Sites which adopted new trends The very first websites which adopted the explicit standards for social networking were Orkut, FaceBook, LinkedIn, MySpace, Friendster, Beboand Habbo. The recent change in these trends is the rise in the media sharing sites such as You Tube, icro-blogging sites such as Twitter, Location based networking sites such as Google Latitude and interest sharing sites such as Pinteres t (Vallor 2012). Rise of ethical concerns related to social networking sites One of the sub parts of the computer and information ethics is the ethical implications of Social Networking Sites (Bynum 2011). With an increase in the social networking phenomenon and owing much to the effects and usage of the computer as a medium of social communication, the

Researching Politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Researching Politics - Essay Example The purpose of this essay is to examine how relevant the Marshall plan was to Western Europe’s economic recovery. The European continent had been devastated by the War. Most of them were battling with a series of issues. The continent was plagued with so many problems because the Second World War had been more expansive than the First World War. Industrial production was one of the key areas that had been affected by this war. This was largely as a result of the attack that nations had to face from aerial attacks. Some of the most developed cities in the continent urgently needed assistance. Berlin and London were such examples; also, there was an urgent need to look for mechanism of rebuilding other cities like Rotterdam that had been completely destroyed. (Bonds, 2000) Agricultural matters were also exerting a lot of pressure on members of the European continent. After the war, many people could not access food because agriculture had been destroyed. Infrastructure was also another problem owing to the fact that bridges, roads and rails had been air struck thus leading to their overall damage. Also, the war had used up much of the treasures that these European countries had placed in store. Consequently, there was a need to look for a system in which they could deal with some of these problems. It should also be noted that the Second World War had come after the First World War. This latter war led to a serious recession within the European continent. Also the US had played a large role in streamlining some of these problems prior to the Marshall Plan. For instance, it is on record that the US assisted Germany in paying its war reparation through a debt given to them. In the US States Department, Harry Truman became interested in luring very active foreign policy. However, the US Congress was not as enthusiastic as this leader was. In fact, at that time, the US Congress thought that Europe would look for

Executive Summary Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Executive Summary - Assignment Example This initiative seeks to establish a customer support service within the outpatient section of the hospital to ensure that some services which were previously not being provided to the clients are made available to them (Wolper, 2011). Therefore, it is evident that many hospitals across the state lack personalised one on one interaction services to their clients whereby critical issues that affect them on the daily basis are discussed and relevant advice be given to them to ensure they stand a better position tackling those problems effectively (Cleverley, Cleverley & Song, 2011). This customer support service will be basically based on offering valuable information and advice to the clients of the hospital on crucial issues that include; the importance and use of contraceptives, cancer awareness, HIV/AIDS counselling and other home care information that the clients may seek to be enlightened on (Weese & Tucholka, 2007). The program will be a sensitization initiative that will be providing support services to clients on issues affecting them daily in their health life. According to a research that was conducted recently by the university of Liverpool it indicated many people who end up suffering from chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and other immune depressing ailments do so as a result of lack of adequate information on way od leading health lifestyles that will free them from the risk of contracting those disease (Guah, 2011). Basically the customer support service will be offering information to the clients on how to lead healthy lifestyles this will involve information on the types of food and physical activities that people need to take, consultation on the use of contraceptives and also advice on how to manage diseases such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, diabetes etc. (Cleverley, Cleverley & Song, 2011). The customer support service that we intend to roll out

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Cover Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Cover Letter - Essay Example Taking Microsoft as an example, as competition grows in the business climate the organization outstands and outlasts its arena of competitors by innovating its old ways, transforming itself rightly to adopt cultures fitting to the organizational needs. The purpose of conceptualized organizational change is to gain the competitive advantage over others. What differentiates the learning organization is its adoption of the resources-oriented school of thought. Armed with these thoughts, the organization channeled their resources into their core competence unique to all and not to be copied. According to Peter Senge, learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together (1990:3). Evident of such higher learning organizations has among their members a fundamental shift of mind to create their future. The top leaders function in making the right choices for the organization and learning about the organization requirement in the new view of leadership. The learning organizations directed by their shared values and principles consist of the total collaboration of employees with their collective ideas of making right changes in all process involvements. The organization equips the employees with continued learning opportunities to encourage and provide for the working toward their goals. Learning organizations inquires and dialogues with their people to safely share in open and progressively enrich themselves with more corporate activities. Dialogue is the essential discipline to build in its organization the shared vision and to develop within individuals strong mental models. The learning organizations provide managers and individuals or teams with visualized ideas on how things could

Case Study 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Case Study 2 - Essay Example The application of ISD in the various areas like catering, inventory, sales and marketing etc. help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies followed thus facilitating improvements and enhancing overall performance. The new approach to ISD would therefore, promote a win-win situation for Shaun and consumers both. Implementation of a new technology into an organization needs careful consideration mainly because its introduction is designed to affect the various existing processes and may create conflicting interests and adversely affecting the performance of the organization. SDLC process is an integral part of management information system serving as the centralized monitoring system that coordinates and supports the rest of the functions and user requirements in order to help the organization to achieve all its strategic goals and objectives. The initial phase of feasibility study is the most important phase as it is the decisive factor that would decide the appropriateness of the new technology for the Restaurant. The identification of the core business processes and creation of appropriate database of relevant information with regard to inventory, sales order, menu account and schedules are important phases that help in the pilot running of the system. The rest of the implementation phase s are equally important as they help to adapt to a new system smoothly and efficiently, promoting understanding. Carmen needs to understand the various inter-related processes of the SDLC system in the Restaurant system so that new technology can be effectively used to improve the overall performance the business. Project plans are important part of SDLC strategy so that the pilot running of the system is able to identify the weaknesses and strength within the system. Strategic planning helps to improve and

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Cover Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Cover Letter - Essay Example Taking Microsoft as an example, as competition grows in the business climate the organization outstands and outlasts its arena of competitors by innovating its old ways, transforming itself rightly to adopt cultures fitting to the organizational needs. The purpose of conceptualized organizational change is to gain the competitive advantage over others. What differentiates the learning organization is its adoption of the resources-oriented school of thought. Armed with these thoughts, the organization channeled their resources into their core competence unique to all and not to be copied. According to Peter Senge, learning organizations are organizations where people continually expand their capacity to create results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together (1990:3). Evident of such higher learning organizations has among their members a fundamental shift of mind to create their future. The top leaders function in making the right choices for the organization and learning about the organization requirement in the new view of leadership. The learning organizations directed by their shared values and principles consist of the total collaboration of employees with their collective ideas of making right changes in all process involvements. The organization equips the employees with continued learning opportunities to encourage and provide for the working toward their goals. Learning organizations inquires and dialogues with their people to safely share in open and progressively enrich themselves with more corporate activities. Dialogue is the essential discipline to build in its organization the shared vision and to develop within individuals strong mental models. The learning organizations provide managers and individuals or teams with visualized ideas on how things could

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Clinical Judgement and Decision Making Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Clinical Judgement and Decision Making - Essay Example After that discovery is when R. L could be treated and despite the fact that he took time to heal, he eventually recovered from all the diagnosis. This clearly implies that R. L had a problem with judgment and decision making process. Clinical judgment is a very critical aspect of human life because a clinic or healthcare is an environment that deals with human life (Luker and Kenrick 2002). Any judgment made is related to human life. For example, R L’s case is a problem on his body where he is unable to swallow food properly. Decision-making is very crucial in such a situation because R.L was suffering and when he goes to the hospital he refuses to share his problem with the physician. In such cases, the doctor is unable to make judgment concerning the best approach for R. L’s condition. In some cases, decision-making becomes a dilemma. For example, during operations of transplant of kidney from one person to another where both people are operated, the physician is for ced to save one person meaning that he or she has to make a critical decision. In fact, judgment in clinical field is very crucial and it requires professionalism and experience as observed in R. L’s situation. According to Dowie, judgment in clinical context is defined as the evaluation of the alternative, the choosing between alternatives, and suggests that judgments are normally in certain way an evaluation of the future (Dowie 1993). R. L’s future was determined by the speech pathologist who made a very crucial decision of assessing him and finding out what his problem was and moving further to treat him. In suggesting this, Dowie debates that if a decision is to be regarded sensible then certainly some knowledge of what the prospect might seem like... The author of this essay assumes that in the current world, there is a well-established and mounting body on judgment and decision-making (JDM). There has been a recurring discussion concerning the constructs and description of judgment and decision making process. This means that there is no universal definition of JDM because these descriptions range significantly across disciplines, philosophies and professions. Nevertheless, judgment is observed as a professional selection other than task: genuine life practice rather than imagined actions of those who view professional status as a good in its own other than a way to an attractive, namely the higher quality care and treatment of patients. In the end the authors sums up that the literature and speculations of JDM are widespread and inclusive as they are contentious. There is no single way to organize the research and literature on JDM. It is apparent that there are distinguished and contesting accounts of JDM in the research and literature. There are several researches done on Judgment in paramedic practice. Some of them are researched well with deep explanation and concrete evidence on facts. However, some researches and theories are not up to their tasks because some of their findings had no concrete proofs. However, for all the theories written concerning judgment and decision-making process, descriptive theories are the best because they are consistent with all the rules and principles of nursing and healthcare.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Sociological Theories And Service Users Situations Social Work Essay

Sociological Theories And Service Users Situations Social Work Essay In taking the time to observe how sociological and psychological influences may impact on a service user or client group, the social worker can remain mindful of the wider context of a situation and not just take what she sees at face value. This knowledge allows the social worker to remain objective and to make informed decisions in order to maintain professionalism in her work. By applying Sociological and Psychological theory to the Bertrams case study I aim to explore the wider social context, outside influence and psychological implications from the past and present. Through this exploration I will uncover the varying viewpoints and sometimes contradictory nature of these theories. To gain a Sociological perspective on the case study I will be applying Functionalist and Feminist theories. I will be able to scrutinise the Bertrams current situation and apply the theory in order to gain a wider understanding of the social context. In order to maintain a balanced viewpoint, Psychod ynamic theory and Maslows hierarchy will enable me to consider the psychological impact with a focus on human and emotional development. By examining a situation from a Sociological perspective we can take into account how various aspects such as class, social structure, religion, disability can impact people from a wider social context. This is essential in gaining a holistic picture the situation. Functionalism By applying a Macro theory to the case scenario it allows us to look at the large scale features of society and how individual actions affect society as a whole and vice versa. Functionalism will enable me to contemplate the structure of society and how the Bertrams fit within that structure. Functionalist theorists regard society as a system with interlocking parts. It is believed that each part needs to function effectively in order for society, as a system, to work as a whole. It is often rationalised using biological analogy. The social role of individuals is an integral part of the theory. Each person is thought to have their individual role to play within society. From a functionalist perspective it is very clear that Mrs Bertram is not fulfilling her role as a wife. Due to her alzemers she is unable to carry out the duties that would have been expected of her. Durkheim believed that everyone had their place, and a womans place was in the home. In the context of the 40s, 50s wh en Functionalism was at its peak, this viewpoint would not have been uncommon, if a little out-dated by todays standards. None the less, it is not through choice that she has become dysfunctional within society. She has legitimate claim for not being able to carry out her societal role and Functionalism would automatically see her take on the sick role. This would enable her to function again within the system under a different guise. It could also be observed that Mr Bertram is a dysfunctional member of society. With his reckless behaviour, his outrageous spending, and the lack of care for his wifes basic needs he is no longer fulfilling his role of husband. A main proponent of Functionalism was Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). He saw marital vows as obligations. When I perform my duties as a brother, a husband or a citizen and carry out the commitments I have entered into, I fulfil obligations which are defined in law and custom which are external to myself and my actions (Durkheim, 1982). He believed that if a member of society was deemed as dysfunctional, then he was considered to be a deviant member of society. Deviance occurs when people are not functioning correctly, according to the norm. This could be through crime, or anything which affects their ability to carry out their societal role. Deviance needs to be controlled or managed. If it was established that Mr Bertram was in fact deviant then he may need some persuading that by providing the care and attention that his wife needs his wife would not be removed from the situation. Through this resolution, therefore, they would both be able to function appropriately. It could be observed that Mr Bertram had an alcohol dependency. If this was established then Mr Bertram too may take on the sick role. In which case a different method for resolving the issues within the house would need to be adopted. Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) believed that sickness was a social concept rather than a biological concept. So being ill meant acting in different, deviant ways to the norm. Being sick was therefore a form of social role (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004). Parsons believed the rights of a sick person to be exemption from normal social obligations, the right to be looked after and blamed for their social deviance as long as they were genuinely sick. Obligations of a person playing the sick role would be to understand that they have to get well as soon as possible in order to continue their normal function and in order to do this they must receive professional help. Mr Bertrams condition would need to be treated or managed in order to enable him to function ag ain. In that case Mr and Mrs Bertram would be able to stay at home under treatment and the issues about care could be dealt with accordingly. He would no longer be considered deviant member of society. A criticism of the sick role would be that it is very difficult to apply to long term illness like that of Mrs Bertram. It is built on the assumption that the person gain help in order to gain function. This would not be possible for Mrs Bertram. Feminism From a Radical Feminist perspective it could be observed that Mrs Bertram has been oppressed by her husband. Through her devotion and his dominance she has succumb to subordination. Radical Feminists use the patriarchal social system as a concept to explain gender inequality. Patriarchy is the dominance of men over women in society. They view men as responsible for the exploitation of women from which they benefit greatly, through free domestic labour, sexual duties and so on. The case study describes how Mrs Bertram was swept off of her feet and totally devoted to Mr Bertram. In their current situation, Mrs Bertram is at home in squalled conditions and desperately in need of help. Mr Bertram is avoiding the situation by using diversionary tactic, selfishly seeking social activity and pleasure through drink. This further increases her oppression as she is fully dependent on her husband to provide the care and attention which she is desperately in need of. Shulamith Firestone, an early radical feminist writer argues that men control womens roles in re-production and child bearing. Because women are biologically able to give birth to children, they become more dependent materially on men for protection and livelihood (Giddens, 2006). Feminists could argue that for this reason Mrs Bertram has become vulnerable within her setting and just accepts this way of life. Jessie Bernard argued that Men need marriage more than women (pg 208 Gender). Perhaps this reliance on the domestic labour, comfort and sexual duties of a wife, which has been lost my Mr Bertram through his wifes condition is attributing to his behaviour. Mrs Bertram is no longer fulfilling her duties as a wife and this could be disrupting his routine. It would appear that Mr Bertram has never had to control the household, take care of his wife or finances, and may lack the ability or may simply consider it beneath him. It could affect his masculinity to have to carry out such c hores and duties believed to be part of a womans role. This may also be the reason why he is reluctant to accept help with the situation. He may feel he is being barraged and dictated to by his step daughters which may be resulting in a greater defiance. It is not clear from the case study, the nature of their relationship either. He may feel that family and professionals are undermining his authority as head of the household. Mr Bertram may be compensating for his lack of masculinity at home, by using his social appearance, bravado, drinking and defiance. This time away from the house for him may reaffirm his role as a dominant male within society whilst his dominant role as a man disappears at home. He no longer has command over his wife, no longer gets respect, adoration that he was once used to. Men are considered to have more influence within society; Mr Bertram has no influence over this situation or over his wife. Part 2: Using the scenario describe two psychological theories that can be used to help your understanding of the service users situation Humanistic theory Maslows hierarchy of needs Humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908 1970) argued that humans throughout life not only want to have their basic survival needs met they strive for more in terms of personal growth. He believed that once basic needs for survival had been met that human development progressed toward higher psychological needs. He argued that people are motivated by the conscious desire for personal growth (Rathus, 2004). Maslow believed what separated us from our so-called lower animals was our capacity for self-actualisation (Rathus,2004). He believed that this self- actualisation was as important as basic needs but could not be met unless other stages of human needs were completed. He organised these stages into the hierarchy of needs, often presented in pyramid format. Each stage must be satisfied in order to progress to the next. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs. These are the basic human needs we all have in order to survive, like food, water, shelter, oxygen. Once t he first basic need has been satisfied, the following stage is safety needs, the need for security. The following stage in the hierarchy is love and belonging; the need to give and receive love, to overcome loneliness and achieve a sense of belonging in life. The fourth stage is Esteem needs; to feel self-confident, respected and not to feel inferior. Self-actualisation is the final stage in the hierarchy and can only be reached when all foregoing needs are satisfied and the person feels he has achieved everything he wants to in life and is the best that he can be. In the case of the Bertrams it is clear that Mrs Bertram is currently not even meeting the bottom of Maslows hierarchy of needs. It is noted that their flat is in an appalling state, she is unable to feed herself and left on her own for most of the day. You would expect most of her needs to be met within the context of her marriage to Mr Bertram; however, since he has neglected his role as a husband, he has placed her in a position of significant danger. Since not even her basic physiological needs are being met in the current situation then at present there would not be an opportunity to progress through the hierarchy of needs. If Mrs Bertram was placed in residential care then her physiological needs would be met. She would have food, water and care of her basic needs. She could then perhaps progress to the following stage of safety. She would no longer be at risk of hurting herself and she would be in a more secure environment. Although it could be argued that for an advance Alzheimers sufferer, the unfamiliar setting would disorientate her and she might not actually feel secure there. Because of her diagnosis, Mrs Bertram is unlikely to meet the third stage of love and belongingness. Her advanced Alzheimers may mean that she fails to recognise her husband, family members and have a declining ability to communicate. Mrs Bertram would never reach self-actualisation. The best that could be achieved would be basic survival and safety needs, whether this was achieved at home with the compliance of her husband, or in residential care. Although it could be debated that residential care would not be the best opt ion. As the GP states in the case scenario, a move to residential care might well kill Mrs Bertram. It would appear from the case scenario that Mr Bertrams basic needs are being fulfilled. However it is uncertain as to whether his s safety and security needs are being met. He certainly would not get a sense of love and belonging from his wife, in the latter stages of sever dementia. I would observe, however, there is some attempt from Mr Bertram to achieve a sense of self-esteem, since he spends the majority of his time with his compatriots at the golf club. It is clear that in this relationship and the current situation faced by the Bertrams that he too has no way of reaching self-actualisation. Maslow observes that it is mainly social factors that hinder the personal growth of humans. Potentially at least the first two stages of Maslows hierarchy could be reached within the context of their marriage, with the right services in place. Psychodynamic theory Through the Psychodynamic theory of personality we could speculate about Mr Bertrams past and how that has influence on his behaviour in the present. It would be difficult to achieve a comprehensive result in regards to Mrs Bertram because of her Alzheimers. Since her behaviour is wholly attributed to her condition. Studying Sigmund Freuds (1856 1939) theories, with a focus on psychosexual development, would be the most relevant to apply to the case scenario. Psychodynamic theory had been developed and evolved over the years. Freuds idea of Psychodynamic theory depicted humans as largely driven by unconscious motives and desires. He proclaimed that humans come into conflict when their basic instincts come up against social pressure to follow, laws or moral codes. At first this conflict is external, but as we develop it becomes internalised (Rathus, 2004). Freud explains the conflict of personality using psychic structures. The id, which Freud believed is present at birth and located in the unconscious mind, and revolves around our basic biological drives and instincts. It operates on what Freud called the pleasure principle. It demands instant gratification regardless of laws or moral rules. Another feature in the structure of personality is the ego. Formed from the id, developed through learni ng and experience. This is the part where conscious thought takes place (Beckett and Taylor, 2010). The ego operates on the reality principle. This takes into consideration what is practical and possible in gratifying needs (Rathus, 2004). When the ego senses improper impulses arsing it can sometimes deploy a number of defence mechanisms. The third psychic structure is the superego. This is formed throughout early childhood and is developed through standards, values, parenting and moral standards. Psychodynamic theory emphasises the way in which the mind stimulates behavior, and both mind and behavior influence and are influenced by the persons social environment (Payne, 2005) Freud believed there were four stages in psychosexual development. The first stage took place during the first year of a childs life. This is known as the oral stage. Much of the childs development is explored by putting things into the mouth and sucking, biting chewing. Freud believed it was possible to have arrested development through trauma. And be fixated on one of the stages. From the case study we could surmise that Mr Bertram is fixated on the oral stage of psychosexual development through his drinking. We could speculate that he may have had a significant trauma at that stage which has left him with a possible alcohol dependency, thus fixated on the oral stage. It could perhaps be identified that Mr Bertram is using psychological defence mechanisms in order to avoid the situation that he is currently facing. Part 3: Reflect on your own background describe it and indicate 1 sociological and 1 psychological theory that can be applied to you, giving examples The relationship I have with my father has often been fraught, difficult and tense. As a sufferer of a severe mental disorder, my father has often displayed irrational, delusional, paranoid and sometimes violent behaviour. Throughout his life he has had frequent hospitalisation. For me this is something I have grown up with and am used to dealing with on a day to day basis. I am acutely aware of how our relationship differs to that of my friends for example. I have as close a relationship as possible with him, and to that end I usually bear the brunt of his paranoia and aggression when he is unwell. I have witnessed first-hand the stigma attached to mental illness. I find it extremely difficult to trust anyone enough to tell them about the situation, and I strongly feel I shouldnt have to tell everyone that meets him, this only leads to labelling him as mentally ill, thus changing the way in which they treat him; which only compounds his paranoia. Some Sociological theorists believe that mental illness is a social construction in order to rationalise bizarre or irrational behaviour that cannot be in any other way explained. This is known as labelling theory. Scheff (1966) argued that people are labelled as mentally ill because their behaviour does not make sense to others. Scheff points out that labelling of a person as mentally ill is facilitated by stereotyped imagery learned in early childhood and continually reaffirmed, inadvertently, in ordinary social interaction and through the mass media. Thus, when a persons violation of social norms or deviance becomes a public issue, the traditional stereotype of crazy person is readily adopted both by those reacting to the deviant person and, often, by the deviant person as well (Lamb. 2002). Erving Goffman suggests that when someone is labelled as mentally ill then they are treated differently. When an interaction takes place with that person it is with this knowledge of the menta l illness, therefore creating what Goffman called a spurious interaction (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004). From a behaviourist view, Schizophrenia could be viewed as a kind of learned behaviour. From this perspective, people engage in schizophrenic behaviour when it is more likely to be reinforced than normal behaviour (Rathus, 2004). This could be the result of being raised in an unrewarding or punitive situation. It could also be observed that this kind of behaviour is reinforced within the hospital setting, where the schizophrenic behaviour is reinforced through attention from professionals within that setting. Cognitive theory argues that behavior is affected by perception or interpretation of the environment during the process of learning. Apparently inappropriate behavior must therefore arise from misinterpretation. Therapy tries to correct the misunderstanding, so that our behavior reacts appropriately to the environment (Payne, 2006) I believe the experiences I have had with my father give me the ability to understand mental illness without stigmatising. It also helps me empathise with the sufferer and the family. An empathetic approach to someone who was hearing voices for example, would be to understand that to the person affect, they are very real. I fully understand the importance of having the right services in place in order for that person to thrive. My experience allows me to observe the wider context of a situation and realise that it is not only the primary sufferer of the condition that is affected. The wider family needs to be considered as they have a huge role to play in the well-being of the person concerned.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Hippocratic Medicine :: essays research papers fc

Introduction Hippocratic medicine remains one of Ancient Greece's lasting contributions to the field of science. Lacking the equipment physicians today take for granted when diagnosing and healing their patients, Hippocratic physicians were forced to create a novel system for explaining and curing disease based upon the prevalent scientific theories of their era. This system became known as the humoral theory of disease. Humoral theory incorporated the theories of Presocratic philosophers in order to explain disease and offer help for a cure. Two themes characterizing Presocratic philosophical thought dramatically influenced humoral theory. The humoral theory approach of Hippocratic medicine was based upon Presocratic philosophical musings about the relationship of man to the world. By the time humoral theory was vogue, philosophers had concluded that both man and the world were governed by the same natural laws. Humoral theory also was based upon Presocratic theories about change and how it occu rred in the world; humoral theory depended upon the assertion that contrasting elements constantly contradicted each other, leading to continuous change on one level and stability on another. These two Presocratic theories shaped humoral theory and allowed the physician to develop a rational and empirically based approach to medicine. Hippocrates - Separating the Man from the Myth Before we can trace the development of these theories by the Presocratics we must first consider Hippocratic medicine and humoral theory. Most of what is known about the historical figure Hippocrates, the supposed founder of the Hippocratic medical approach, must be evaluated with caution. Hippocrates lived c. 460-370 BC, but further reliable information about his life is difficult to obtain.(1) Two passages from Plato are seen as legitimate sources of information about Hippocrates' life. Plato lived from 427-348 BC, making him a contemporary of Hippocrates. A passage from Plato's work Protagoras suggests that Hippocrates was a physician, associated with the island of Cos, who taught medicine to students for a fee. Another passage from a work of Plato, the Phaedras, alludes to a "method" by which Hippocrates gained an understanding of medicine. These sources provide some means by which to evaluate the impact of Hippocrates upon ancient medical practice. The Corpus Hippocraticum Many other texts attributed to Hippocrates shed light upon the Hippocratic method of medicine. None of these texts may be identified as Hippocrates' own work, however. These works are called the Corpus Hippocraticum and number upwards of sixty.(2) Scholars have suggested that the texts may have been part of a library collection, originally from Cos, that was subsequently moved to Alexandria and then added upon, building the collection of medical texts we have today.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

An Internet for Everyone :: Internet Web Cyberspace Essays

An Internet for Everyone Web Sight by Arati Bechtel an article in the Camarillo Star, explains how the Internet claim that Everyone can use the internet is wrong in many ways. For people who are mentally or physically disabled, it is much more difficult to get the same access and effectiveness out of the internet as for someone who is completely healthy. The internet is about 99% visual and for someone who is visually impaired, it would be extremely difficult to use the internet. Arati Bechtel explains in her article about some of the research done on accessibility to the internet for the visually impaired and says that there is some new software for the blind that has been make with a better design to help them use the internet as apposed to the old way of using brail. An example of these programs is called Jaws Screen Reader, it is a program that takes the text and reads it out loud to the user. This allows a blind person to log on and listen to their email or listen to some information that they could pos sibly be looking for. But theses programs are not nearly enough and not nearly developed enough to be effectively used by the disabled. Bechtel states that more needs to be done for the internet to be used by everyone. Howard Rheingolds theory about the internet in his article The Heart of the WELL is that by logging on to the WELL, everyone can find there place for support or use it as a parenting community. Whichever way you choose to go, everyone will always find a place to feel comfortable in a community and find support from other people. (Rheingold 154) He describes how he and others in a community had an ongoing conversation with the father of a girl that had an illness, and with the support of the WELL, the woman was able to recover from her illness Figueroa 2 and come to a full recovery. He also described how a parent could have a question about the health of their infant child, and acquire the information quicker by logging on to the WELL and asking the users, then by call ing a doctor directly. (Rheingold 151) Another use of the WELL was to help each other on different parenting techniques assisting parents to become better mothers and fathers all around the world.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Jimi Hendrix and His Life Accomplishments Essay

Jimi Hendrix was one of the most influential and talented musicians of the 20th century, and through his work he made rock music what it is today. His talent with a guitar was what made him so popular in his own time. The reason he became a rock and roll legend in the 20th century was because of his new style, outrageous performances and his powerful lyrics which captivated his audiences. His new style of music involved, â€Å"†¦the extensive use but sensitively nuanced use of feedback, distortion, and other electronically manipulated sound effects.† (â€Å"Hendrix, Jimi†). Some found the performances he put on to be crazy or insane, but his fans found them to be inspiring. Nevertheless, â€Å"The true power of his genius lay in his musical and lyrical candor.† (Fricke). On November 27, 1942 at 10:15 Johnny Allen Hendrix was born in King County Hospital. Johnny’s name was changed 4 years later to James Marshal Hendrix, the name he is better know by today. Just a few months after Jimi turned 16 his mother Lucille died. Jimi got his first guitar later in the year of his mother’s death. (â€Å"Time Line†) Many people think his heartbreak over his mother’s death is why Jimi turned to the guitar and writing music because, â€Å"At its core, Hendrix’s music was all about the blues.† (Fricke). A year later in 1959 Jimi played in his first concert with â€Å"The Velvetones†. Then Jimi dropped out of high school to join the army. He was only in the army for about 3 months because he got injured during a mission and was discharged. Less than a year after being discharged from the army Jimi began to play on the R & B circuit. After about 4 years of that Jimi formed his own band called â€Å"Jimmy James and The B lue Flames†. In this band is where he was discovered by a man named Chas Chandler. (â€Å"Jimi Hendrix Biography†) Then on October 6, 1966 Jimi Hendrix’s most popular band was formed, â€Å"Jimi Hendrix Experience†. Over the course of about 2 years the Jimi Hendrix Experience released their 1st, 2nd and 3rd singles. They also toured in the UK, US, with the Monkeys and Jimi had his now legendary performance at the Monterey Pop Festival. In late 1968 and early 1969 Jimi received Artist Of The Year, Performer Of The Year, and World Top Musician awards. Jimi Hendrix’s career then began a downfall as the Jimi Hendrix Experience broke up and Jimi got arrested in Toronto. Jimi formed his last band called Band Of Gypsys and they played a few big concerts in 1970. Then Jimi played his  biggest concert in front of 500,000 people at the Atlanta Pop Festival on July 4, 1970. Jimi Hendrix’s last concert was at the Isle of Fehmarn in Germany. Jimi died on September 18, 1970 and just the day before Jimi wrote his last song entitled â€Å"The Story of Life†. (â€Å"Time Line†) There were many great musicians in the 20th century, and some people believe that they have had a greater influence than Jimi Hendrix on rock today. There were the Beatles, Elvis Presley, the Rolling Stones and many other amazing musicians. Each of these artists also produced anywhere from 10-30 albums in their careers and, â€Å"†¦in his life time Jimi Hendrix officially released only three studio albums† (Fricke) With so little music produced for the public how could he have influenced rock in any way at all. There are also other people who think Jimi Hendrix was a bad influence. Jimi Hendrix ran into many problems with the law involving his use of drugs and his anger problems. Some people feel that if someone influential is using drugs or committing violent acts this is influencing fans and followers in a wrong and potentially harmful way. There are also people who probably just didn’t like his music. â€Å"The furor Hendrix created upon his arrival on the London pop scene was unprecedented.† (Fricke) His new style of using lots of electronic sound effects was very different and new, and to some people probably it just sounded like a bunch of noise. If anything, some felt his influence changed rock for the worse. It is definitely true that there were many great musicians that played a part in influencing rock music and making it what it is today. Those musicians also wrote more albums and had more popular songs than Jimi Hendrix. But having many albums and popular songs isn’t what really influenced the development of rock music or the people who played and wrote rock music. What really influences something is a new and unique style, and that is exactly what Jimi Hendrix provided. He, â€Å"did not conform to British fantasies of sharpdressing soul belters grizzled old bluesmen, who played rock & roll guitar†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Fricke). The way he took control during a concert using his pure talent with a guitar and the new style he had in his heart, changed the way concerts were to be performed forever. Jimi Hendrix did have a few flaws in his personality, but that doesn’t change his influence in the  slightest. His influence came directly from his music and this part of him was flawless. â€Å"†¦simply pulling sounds out of the air and taming them into one seamless whole, accomplishing it with unassailable daring.† (Mitchell) Jimi Hendrix was one of the most influential and talented musicians of the 20th century, and through his work he has made rock music what it is today. The combination of that creative drive with his stunning technique, sonic imagination and ingenious, painterly exploitation of effects like wah-wah, feedback, distortion and sheer earthquaking volume transformed rock & roll — and its primary instrument, the electric guitar –forever. Hendrix left an indelible, fiercely individual mark on popular music, accelerating rock’s already dynamic rate of change in the late Sixties with his revolutionary synthesis of guitar violence, improvisational nerve, spacey melodic reveries and a confessional intensity born of the blues. (Fricke) Although Jimi Hendrix didn’t affect any other fields other than rock music directly, his influence on rock music continues to effect the world today. Many people have various aspects to their personality and Jimi Hendrix was definitely one of them. On his one side he had serious drug and anger problems. This side of him, obviously the bad one, was not the side his fans thought of when they saw his poster on their wall. They thought of his flawless other side in which he was an amazing guitarist, song writer and performer. Jimi Hendrix loved to write music and play his guitar more than anything else in the world, â€Å"For Hendrix it was the substance of life.† (Fricke). Work Cited Fricke, David. â€Å"Jimi Hendrix: The Greatest Guitarist of All Time.† Rolling Stone. February 6, 1992 â€Å"Hendrix, Jimi.† The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University press, 2003. â€Å"Jimi Hendrix Biography.† We’ll Always Remember Jimi Hendrix. (1 December, 2003) Mitchell, Elvis. â€Å"Jimi Hendrix Again, Going Out With a Bang.† New York Times. October 6 2001, :A20 â€Å"Time Line†. Jimi Hendrix Online Archive. (3 December, 2003)

Thursday, October 10, 2019

As English Short Stories Summary

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS AS LITERATURE IN ENGLISH: SYLLABUS 9695 NOTES FOR TEACHERS ON STORIES SET FOR STUDY FROM STORIES OF OURSELVES: THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS ANTHOLOGY OF SHORT STORIES IN ENGLISH FOR EXAMINATION IN JUNE AND NOVEMBER 2010, 2011 AND 2012 CONTENTS Introduction: How to use these notes 1. The Fall of the House of UsherEdgar Allen Poe 2. The Open BoatStephen Crane 3. The Door in the WallHG Wells 4. The People BeforeMaurice Shadbolt 5. A Horse and Two GoatsRK Narayan 6. JourneyPatricia Grace 7. To Da-Duh, In MemoriamPaule Marshall 8. Of White Hairs and CricketRohinton Mistry 9. SandpiperAhdaf Soueif 10. TyresAdam Thorpe These notes are intended to give some background information on each author and/or story as an aid to further research and to stimulate discussion in the classroom. They are intended only as a starting point and are no substitute for the teacher’s and student’s own study and exploration of the texts. Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) The Fall of the House of Usher This is one of the most famous gothic stories from one of the masters of the enre and contains many of the traditional elements of the genre, including horror, death, medievalism, an ancient building and signs of great psychological disturbance. The mood of oppressive melancholy is established at the opening of the story and here readers may note an acknowledgement of the appeal of gothic fiction: while there is fear and horror, the shudder is ‘thrilling’ and the ‘sentime nt’ is ‘half-pleasurable’. At the centre of the story are mysteries, about the psychological state of Usher himself and about his sister’s illness and death. The story only offers hints and suggestions; there is an ‘oppressive secret’, while the sister, buried in a strangely secure vault, returns as if risen from the dead to claim her brother. In archetypal gothic fashion, a raging storm of extreme violence mirrors the destruction of the family and its ancestral home. Horror stories and horror films continue to have wide popular appeal and it is worth considering why this is so, and in what ways this story fulfils the appeal of the horror story. Why are Usher’s and his sister’s maladies never identified? What does Madeline’s escape from the vault suggest? Wider reading Other gothic tales by Poe include The Masque of the Red Death, The Tell-Tale Heart and The Black Cat. The Woman in Black by Susan Hill Compare with The Door in the Wall by HG Wells The Hollow of the Three Hills by Nathaniel Hawthorne The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Online Biographical material and a searchable list of works can be found at: http://www. online-literature. com/poe/ Stephen Crane (1871-1900) The Open Boat This story is based on Crane’s own experience, when as a war correspondent, the boat he was travelling on to Cuba sank. He and others spent a number of days drifting in a small boat before reaching land. The story explores the fortitude of men in a shared plight and their companionship in the face of danger. The narrative style is factual and plain, perhaps mirroring the honest practicality of the men in the boat whose story is being narrated. It engenders an admiration of the skilled seamanship and calm demonstrated by the seamen. The drama in the story comes from the waves; the seamen converse, swap roles and encourage each other under the guidance of the captain. When they eventually reach shore, death comes to one of them, who is ‘randomly’ chosen. Without obviously aiming for pathos, Crane achieves it with the oiler’s death. The story, like the seamen, betrays ‘no hurried words, no pallor, no plain agitation’, but achieves a real sense of loss at its conclusion. Wider reading The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane Typhoon by Joseph Conrad Compare with The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allen Poe How it Happened by Arthur Conan Doyle Real Time by Amit Chaudhuri Online Biographical material and a searchable list of works can be found at: http://www. nline-literature. com/crane/ HG Wells (1866-1946) The Door in the Wall As well as famous novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine, HG Wells wrote numerous short stories, many of which show the author’s interest in fantasy and the improbable, but a feature of the stories is the way in which Wells creates a sense of truthfulness in his narratives. This was demonstrated when a radio broadcast of an adaptation of The War of the Worlds in 1938 caused panic in New York, and can also be seen in the narrator’s concern with the truth of the story at the beginning of The Door in the Wall. Here the narrator is retelling the story of someone else, who in turn tells it to him with ‘such direct simplicity of conviction’. This creates a tension which remains throughout the story, which on the one hand is ‘frankly incredible’ while we are assured that ‘it was a true story’. The temporary childhood escape into the paradisiacal garden is evoked with nostalgic longing, but remains inexplicable. The character’s final death leaves questions for the reader; it is either another inexplicable event, or some kind of solution to the mystery. Wider reading Try either of the novels listed above, or other short stories by Wells, such as The Country of the Blind or The Diamond Maker. Compare with The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allen Poe The Signalman by Charles Dickens The Moving Finger by Edith Wharton Online Wells’ biography and a searchable list of works can be found at: http://www. online-literature. com/wellshg/ An account of the New York panic can be found at: http://history1900s. about. com/od/1930s/a/warofworlds. htm Maurice Shadbolt (1932-1985) The People Before Maurice Shadbolt is one of the towering figures of New Zealand literature, winning numerous awards and accolades for his work, much of which examines the history of the country through narrative. The central characters in this story are carving out a farming existence on the land, and the importance of land ownership to the family is made apparent in a number of phrases in the story. The narrator tells us that ‘my father took on that farm’, he refers to the importance of ‘Land of your own,’ which becomes ‘your own little kingdom’. The suggestions of the history of the land come through the discovery of the greenstone adzes and attitudes to the land are brought to the fore with the visit of the Maori group. Although Shadbolt characterises Tom Taikaka as pleasant, courteous and patient, there is the constant underlying acknowledgement of the Europeans’ displacing of the Maori from their land. Jim’s attempt at restoring the greenstone to Tom is symbolic of an attempt at restitution, and the reader is left to interpret Tom’s reluctant refusal. The return of the Maori elder to the land in death, and his disappearance, is another indication of his unity with the landscape and again demonstrates the different attitudes to land held by the Maoris and the Europeans, attitudes which remain polarised in the brothers at the end of the story. Wider reading Strangers and Journeys or The Lovelock Version by Maurice Shadbolt Playing Waterloo by Peter Hawes Compare with Journey by Patricia Grace Her First Ball by Katherine Mansfield The Enemy by VS Naipaul Online Biographical information and a critical review of Shadbolt’s work is available at: http://www. ookcouncil. org. nz/writers/shadboltm. html This newspaper obituary is also interesting: http://www. timesonline. co. uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article497710. ece RK Narayan (1906-2001) A Horse and Two Goats Narayan has written numerous novels and short stories, many of them set in Malgudi, a fictional but typical small Indian town. His characters are invariably ordinary peopl e finding their route through Indian life. Although A Horse and Two Goats makes no reference to Malgudi itself, it is typical of these stories, as Muni tries to live and ease the burden of his poverty. The story is narrated with the non-judgemental understanding and gentle humour typical of Narayan’s writing. The narration emphasises the insignificance of the village, and by implication the insignificance of its central character, who is coping with poverty and domestic struggle and seeks to ease his way by deceit and invention. The big deceit of the story, though, happens through misunderstanding and without Muni’s volition, Narayan creating comedy through the two parallel lines of attempted dialogue between Muni and the American tourist. Within the comedy, though, Narayan shows the different values of the two, the American’s dialogue concerned with acquisition and possessions, while Muni is concerned with history and spirituality. Wider reading The Guide (novel) and Malgudi Days (short stories) by RK Narayan Kanthapura by Raja Rao Compare with Games at Twilight by Anita Desai Of White Hairs and Cricket by Rohinton Mistry Online Information about RK Narayan is available at: http://www. eng. fju. edu. tw/worldlit/india/narayan. html Patricia Grace (1937-) Journey Patricia Grace’s first novel, Mutuwhenua, was significant in being the first novel published by a woman Maori writer, and she has become an important figure in Maori writing in English in New Zealand. Journey shows her interest in the Maoris’ traditional claims on land. The rather dislocated narrative, with limited punctuation and no speech markings, creates the effect of creating the old man’s perspective, although the narrative is written in the third person. This old man’s perspective, with its old Maori wisdom, is shown to be out of balance with ‘these young people’, the ‘cars and railways’, the new housing and the growth of the city. His journey into the city makes him feel more and more alienated, and this is accentuated when the narrative is interspersed with the interview dialogue. The official and the old man cannot make each other understand. There is no comprehension on either side of the other’s view of how land should be used, and the story ends with frustration, violence and disillusion. In this story, Grace suggests that traditional Maori governance of land has no place in modern government and planning. Wider reading Mutuwhenua (novel) or The Dream Sleepers and Other Stories (short stories) by Patricia Grace Playing Waterloo by Peter Hawes The Bone People by Keri Hulme Compare with The People Before by Maurice Shadbolt To Da-duh, In Memoriam by Paule Marshall Online Biographical and other information about Patricia Grace is available at: http://www. artsfoundation. org. nz/patricia. html Paule Marshall (1929-) To Da-Duh, In Memoriam The narrator in this story remembers her visit from New York to her mother’s home country, which to her is the ‘alien sight and sounds of Barbados’. The story hinges on the relationship formed between the young girl and her grandmother, Da-duh of the title. While the Caribbean is unfamiliar to the young girl, who sees it as ‘some dangerous place’, Da-duh wants to show off its qualities, and a competition is established between the girl and the grandmother, between youth and age, between modernity and tradition and between New York and Barbados, which culminates in the girl’s assertion of the height of the Empire State Building, which dwarfs all that Da-duh shows her. The young girl’s triumph, however, is tempered at the end of the story by ‘the shadow’ of Da-duh’s death. Wider reading This story is taken from Merle and Other Stories by Paule Marshall. Compare with Journey by Patricia Grace Online Information about Paule Marshall is available at: http://www. answers. com/topic/paule_marshall Rohinton Mistry (1952-) Of White Hairs and Cricket This story’s concern with age and mortality is reflected in the structure, beginning with the removal of the narrator’s father’s white hairs and moving to what seems to be his friend’s father’s terminal illness. In the space of the story the narrator has his own recognition of mortality and emerges from boyhood into the adult world. He moves from considering distasteful his task of removing his father’s white hairs to a full awareness of the process of ageing which he ‘is powerless to stop’. There are other signs of this process throughout the story: the loss of the childhood cricket matches, the increasing frailty of Mamaiji, the father’s vain hope of a new job. It is the encounter with the friend Viraf, Dr Sidhwa and the glimpse of Viraf’s father which gives the narrator his epiphanic moment. Wider reading This story is taken from the collection Swimming Lessons and Other Stories. You could also try the novel Family Matters by Rohinton Mistry. Malgudi Days by RK Narayan The God of Small Things by Arundhati Roy Compare with A Horse and Two Goats by RK Narayan To Da-duh, In Memoriam by Paule Marshall The Enemy by VS Naipaul Games at Twilight by Anita Desai Online Biographical material is available at: http://www. contemporarywriters. com/authors/? p=auth73 Ahdaf Soueif (1950-) Sandpiper The narrator in this story is unwilling to disturb even ‘one grain of sand’, and this reflects her passivity as her relationship with her husband breaks down under cultural pressures. The relationship with him is carefully charted, almost historically, but it is significant that he is never named, and a sense of loss grows at the centre of the narrative. The narrative structure includes disconcerting juxtapositions between memory and the present to show the narrator’s sate of mind. The narrative describes a love between the two formed elsewhere; it is the return to the husband’s country which creates the cultural and family pressures on the relationship, including the loss of female independence, work and identity, which cause the couple to drift apart. Such concerns of conflicting cultural pressures are perhaps a natural concern of an author born and educated in Egypt, before continuing education in England. She now divides her time between Cairo and London. Wider reading This story is taken from a collection of short stories by Ahdaf Soueif, also called Sandpiper. The Map of Love is a novel which deals with a love affair between an Egyptian and an English woman. The God of Small Things by Arundhati Roy Compare with To Da-duh, In Memoriam by Paule Marshall The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Five-Twenty by Patrick White Online Biographical information about Ahdaf Soueif is available at: http://www. contemporarywriters. com/authors/? p=auth227 Adam Thorpe (1956-) Tyres The narrative of Tyres is set against the tension of German-occupied France during the Second World War, where relationships are strained, little can be openly communicated and suspicion is rife. The brutality of war suddenly intervenes in the middle of the story with the killing of the suspected members of the French Resistance movement (the Maquis) and the villagers forced to view the bodies, their ‘guts†¦literally looped and dripping almost to the floor’, before the hanging of the ringleader from the village bridge. Set against this is the gradually developing love affair between the young lad learning to maintain vehicles in his father’s garage and the girl who cycles past each day. The young man’s narration leads the reader gradually to his final act of involvement with the resistance against the Germans and its effects; ill-luck seems to be the cause of guilt, and the final revelation of the age of the narrator shows how long that guilt and fidelity has lasted. In this story, Thorpe sets ordinariness – working on cars, changing tyres, a developing relationship – against extraordinariness – the Second World War and German occupation – to create a small poignant story of war. Wider reading This story comes from Adam Thorpe’s short story collection Shifts. His novel Ulverton is a collection of very different narratives which piece together the long history of an English village. Compare with To Da-duh, In Memoriam By Paule Marshall The Moving Finger by Edith Wharton The Taste of Watermelon by Borden Deal Online Biographical information and a review of Adam Thorpe’s work is available at: http://www. contemporarywriters. com/authors/? p=auth95

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Establishment Health Centres Remote Villages Health And Social Care Essay

â€Å" Constitution of Rural Health Centres in distant small towns of Developing States to supply basic wellness installations every bit good as wellness instruction to adult females for baby health care † Introduction A bulk of population depends to a great extent upon authorities plans to run into its wellness attention demands. Poor wellness attention indexs such as maternal and infant mortality demonstrate that these demands are non frequently met. Preventable and catching diseases are the major causes of high mortality rates and lend to a great extent to the load of unwellness in developing states like Pakistan. The load of hapless wellness falls disproportionately upon adult females and kids. Infant mortality is high. A high per centum of kids experience multiple episodes of diseases and their nutrition degrees are unequal. Womans of childbearing age face high incidences of anaemia. Poor nutrition degrees and ill planned gestations exacerbate the wellness conditions of destitute adult females. Additionally, wellness attention is most frequently unavailable for these sections of the population. In the early 1990s, the orientation of the state ‘s medical system, including medical instruction, favored the elite. There has been a pronounced roar in private clinics and infirmaries since the late eightiess and a corresponding, unfortunate impairment in services provided by nationalized infirmaries. In 1992 there was merely one doctor for every 2,127 individuals, one nurse for every 6,626 individuals, and merely one infirmary for every 131,274 individuals. In 1992 some 35 million Pakistanis, or about 30 per centum of the population, were unable to afford nutritionally equal nutrient or to afford any nonfood points at all. Of these, 24.3 million lived in rural countries, where they constituted 29 per centum of the population. Urban countries, with tierce of the national population, had a poorness rate of 26 per centum. The Ministry of Population Welfare has been chiefly responsible for household planning services since the 60 ‘s. However, the Ministry of Health with its larger service bringing web has a greater portion of duty of supplying generative wellness services. In peculiar, the National Programmed for FP and PHC represents the largest graduated table intercession for the bringing of FP and RH services in the signifier of the Lady Health Workers ( LHW ) now integrated with the Village based household be aftering workers. Another index of increasing integrating of generative wellness services is the jointly formulated National Reproductive Health Services Package, which clearly defines the precedence countries for intercession and preparation. 2.0 Literature Review HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN National Public Health and Social Welfare is a recent invention in Pakistan. In pre-partition India the British provided wellness attention for Government workers and established several major infirmaries, but did little for the staying population. Limited resources and trouble in organizing national and provincial duty for wellness attention have hampered betterments since this clip. National Health planning began in the 1960 ‘s and the Government embarked on a major wellness enterprise with significant donor aid from the World Bank. This programmed is aiming maternal wellness, control of epidemics, preparation of female paramedics and bettering the direction of Provincial Health Depts. There was a pronounced addition in the Numberss of private infirmaries and clinics in the 1980 ‘s with a corresponding diminution in service provided by the nationalized services. For case in 1992 there was one doctor per 2,127 people, one infirmary per 131,274 people and between 1985 and 1991, 12.9 million people had no entree to wellness attention. Mortality rates remain high, peculiarly for the under 5 ‘s. The following are the basic wellness service bringing systems in Pakistan: Primary Health Care Facilities Primary Health Care installations include dispensaries, Maternal and Child Health Centres ( MCHC ) , Family Welfare Centres ( FWC ) , Basic Health Units ( BHUs ) and Rural Health Centres ( RHCs ) . Each Union Council, which has a population scope from ten to twenty five thousand people, is, in rule, promised at least one primary wellness attention installation. A brief description of these mercantile establishments is given below: Dispensaries are managed by male paramedics or physicians and offer minor remedy services. MCHCs are managed by female paramedics ( Lady Health Visitors – LHVs ) .They provide basic prenatal attention, natal, post-natal and household planning services, and intervention of minor complaints to adult females. Family Welfare Centres ( FWC ) are the service bringing Centres of the Population Welfare Program operated by paramedics and community development workers. There are two types of FWCs: The inactive units cater to the Reproductive Health demands of a population of 5-7 thousand people and the nomadic units supply services to 15-20 thousand people. Situated in urban slums and rural backwoods countries, they are designed to supply services to the whole household, peculiarly in the country of generative wellness. For widening outreach, they seek community support and engagement. Basic Health Units ( BHUs ) provide wellness attention services to a population of up to 10 1000 and are typically staffed by a male general responsibility physician, an LHV and a dispenser. They offer first degree remedy attention, MCH attention, household planning and preventative services to the population of the country. Rural Health Centres ( RHCs ) provide extended outpatient services and some inmate services, normally limited to short-run observation and intervention of patients who do non necessitate transportation to a higher-level installation. They serve a population of about 25 – 50 thousand people, with a staff of about 30 including 3 to 4 physicians and a figure of paramedics. They typically have 10-20 beds with X-ray, research lab and minor surgery installations. These services do non include bringing and exigency obstetric services. Secondary Health Care Facilities These include Tehsil and District central office infirmaries. Tehsil Headquarters offer basic inmate services every bit good as outpatient services. They serve a population of about 100 – 300 thousand people. They typically have 40-80 beds and appropriate support services including X-ray, research lab and surgery installations. Specialists such as accoucheurs and gynaecologists, general sawboness and baby doctors are included in the staff District Headquarters Hospitals serve a population of approximately 1 to 2 million people and supply a scope of specializer attention in add-on to basic infirmary and outpatient services. They typically have about 100-125 beds. Secondary degree of attention is the most critical nexus between basic and specialised wellness attention services. Unfortunately, this degree excessively, like primary wellness attention, has been uneffective in run intoing its marks in service bringing due to improper fiscal allotments, direction insufficiencies, embezzlement of work force and diagnostic installations and unequal exigency services. The utilization rates of these installations, hence, have been less than optimal. Tertiary Health Care Facilities Tertiary attention services are provided chiefly through learning infirmaries in major metropoliss. The installations offered at these infirmaries include exigency attention ; outpatient and inmate attention for a assortment of fortes and sub-specialties along with extended diagnostic installations. A major part of wellness allotments are consumed by third attention installations adding to the grudges of the primary and secondary attention installations. Health PROGRAMS RELATED TO WOMEN AND INFANT CARE The wellness plan giving particular focal point to major public wellness jobs of the state are discussed as follows: National Program for Family Planning & A ; Primary Health Care The chief push of the plan is to widen the primary wellness attention and household planning services to the communities through trained lady wellness workers ( LHWs ) all over the state. At present, the Program is covering 50 % population, chiefly in the rural and urban slum country. The plan envisages that by the twelvemonth 2003, 100,000 LHWs in the field of household planning and wellness attention services will be trained and with such a strength of LHWs, 70 % of the population will be covered. There is 9100 trained wellness installation staff and 1300 LHWs who are involved in the preparation and supervising of the LHWs. Selection of another batch of 1000 supervisors is completed and their preparation in afoot. During the surpassing financial twelvemonth, Rs.1200 million has been allocated for the execution of the plan with extra allotment of Rs.983 million has besides been allocated during the current twelvemonth ( 2001-2002 ) . 3.0 Statement of Problem â€Å" Constitution of Rural Health Centres in distant small towns of Developing States to supply basic wellness installations every bit good as wellness instruction to adult females for baby health care † 4.0 Research Design The undermentioned subdivision lay down the way that led to the formation of research design and justification of the methodological analysis selected to accomplish the above stated aims. 4.1 Research Paradigm The method that was adopted to make research was the aggregation of informations through secondary beginnings. This method is used because it was non easy to roll up primary informations for this subject and quality secondary information was available from assorted beginnings Interviews were besides conducted with wellness attention practicians to hold more in-depth position of the job being addressed. 4.1.1 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Primary information was collected through Interview Questionnaire development A pre-interview questionnaire was developed. All inquiries were qualitative, and unfastened ended. Observation Fiscal Records 4.2 Data Collection, Analysis and Interpretation The information will be collected from the undermentioned beginnings for qualitative research and analysis through statistical tool and graphical representation of questionnaire. Interviews from wellness attention practicians, educationalist, Secondary information was gathered through books, Internet, official publications and assorted libraries. 4.3 Aim Pakistan has a high baby and maternal mortality rate, which is a load on the system. It is one of the major jobs of our state and batch of resources are spend to minimise this job, but still the authorities is non able to command this high baby and maternal mortality rate. This is a major issue because the resources, which are being spent, which can be used for other developmental intents besides. This survey is important because it addresses this job and provides an penetration to the significance, causes, effects and declaration of this job. What basic wellness installations and instruction is being provided by these RHCs to adult females for infant health care. What jobs are predominating sing maternal and infant health care and recommendations to be given with regard to the jobs. 4.4 Verification, Validity & A ; Reliability Silverman ( 2000 ) has stressed on the fact that credibleness is indispensable for all research whether it be qualitative or quantitative in nature. The research worker will seek to show credibleness of research by supplying good quality research. Researcher will seek to put aside the preconceived thoughts about the phenomenon under consideration and showing the true contemplation of the informations obtained from the sample. Lincoln and Guba ( 1985 ) states the trustiness involves the undermentioned elements: cogency or credibleness, objectiveness or conformability, dependability or dependableness, and genrealizability or transferability. 4.4.1 Validity or Credibility Cogency of the information refers to the truth and preciseness of the informations ( Denscombe, 2007 ) . The research worker will seek to inquire the appropriate research inquiries from the interviewee. The sample selected from the Pakistan Telecom industry will assist the research worker to roll up the valid information which will ease in the probe of the subject under geographic expedition. 4.4.2 Dependability The research worker will see that the research instrument used in the research i.e. qualitative research to be impersonal and consistent across multiple occasions of usage. The research worker will seek to analyze the informations in such a manner that if any other research worker use the same research instrument will bring forth the same consequences. 4.5 SCOPE & A ; LIMITATIONS To roll up first manus cognition for this thesis, rural countries all developing states particularly from Pakistan had to be visited which required batch of fiscal resources. This meant disbursement immense sum of financess to roll up primary informations through study, which might be possible for big organisations like authorities or NGO ‘s etc. , but when sing an person it is non possible. Datas were conductuted through observations and past records were due to their easy handiness. Bibliography hypertext transfer protocol: //! policy.action? id=502 hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: // hypertext transfer protocol: //