Saturday, August 31, 2019

Market for Human Organs

Logan Williams Economics 211 Cupelli 28 February 2013 The Market for Human Organs Richard Knox, a National Public Radio reporter (Richard Knox), states, â€Å"About 75,000 Americans are on the waiting list for kidney transplants. But in the coming year, just 18,000 will get them. † Unfortunately, the transplant list is only growing with each passing year. This means that many people will die on the waiting list and those who are lucky enough to get to surgery may not be strong enough to survive the operation because they have been without vital organs for so long.The legalization of the market would cause more people to donate, evening out the difference between donations and needed transfers. Since the demand for human organs is so high people will do everything in their power to get what they need. Often times this leads to people searching the black market. These organs and operations are not only non-sterile, but can be extremely dangerous as the buying and selling conditi ons are often extremely unsafe. The black market is also known for causing crime, but the offenses committed for human organs a lot of the time involve violent crimes and sometimes murder.The legalization would cause these crimes to almost come to a complete stop. If the human organ market is legalized many more people would be able to get the organs they need. Many more lives would be saved if selling and purchasing organs were legal. Participation in medical research, the selling of blood, eggs, and semen for compensation has become a way for many people to come out of debt or simply have a little bit more money to get by. It only makes sense that if people were given the options to sell their organs more would be involved.With the legalization of the human organ market, people would be more likely to donate their organs knowing that they can get a reward for saving someone’s life. This will help people pay off debts, save money for retirement, or give them more spending mo ney in a safe, reliable way being treated by doctors. When donations are taken after a donor has passed away, the payment would simply be given to a person, institution, or charity chosen by the donor. If it becomes legal to sell organs, it will also become a taxable good, bringing more money into the government.As donation numbers increase, more organs will be available to those in need, and many more lives will be saved. With the increased number of donated body parts, not only will we see direct increases in the number of transplants, but also a tremendous reduction in hospital costs with less people on organ waiting lists. When less money is needed to treat patients waiting for body parts, hospitals can redistribute funds into other branches to buy new technology, hire more staff, or offer more treatment to patients, thus saving more lives.Unfortunately, the many people on the transplant list are slowly dying without any significant treatment. These people know that if they do n ot get any new organs soon, which many realize because they have been on the waiting list for extremely long with no end in sight, they most likely will have to resort to very dangerous ways of getting what they need. They are willing to pay any price so save their lives. This often leads them to the black market.The amount of people involved in the black market is increasing, but untrained people perform surgeries in non-sterile environments leading to risks of infection and possibly death. Another issue with the black market is many poor people become victimized by the wealthy and do not get the money they were promised before the surgery (Growing Market). If the market of human organs was legalized the surgeries would be safer and the money would be guaranteed, leading people away from the dangers of the black market. The black market is notorious for causing crime.Since most people that are in dyer need of an organ don’t care where they are getting it from, people begin s tealing other people’s organs. Many people commit violent crimes or kill for other people’s organs and sell them for their own profit. If organs could be legally sold there would need to be proper identification and paperwork before the surgery could take place, making it so there is not profit in selling organs, therefore dramatically reducing the violent crimes taking place. The legalization would cause the sale of human organs on the black market to almost completely stop.Sadly, the organ transplant list is only growing with the passing time and if there are no changes in how the system is today the donor list will not increase with any significance. If the market for human organs is legalized it would cause an increase in the donor list, money brought into the hospitals and the government. It would decrease the list of people in need of a transplant, the crime rate for organ thefts, the deaths caused by black market surgeries, and could cause an end to the sales of human organs on the black market completely.Without a change people will continue to die waiting for organs they likely never had a chance to receive since the beginning. The legalization of the market for human organs could save many more lives than the organ waiting list is saving now. Works Cited â€Å"Growing Market for Human Organs Exploits Poor. † MSUToday. N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. Knox, Richard. â€Å"Should We Legalize the Market for Human Organs? † NPR. NPR, n. d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. â€Å"Richard Knox. † N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 February 2013 â€Å"Should the Sale of Human Organs Be Legal? † a Debate. org. N. p. , n. d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Sebastians voodoo

Baldwin attention to detail was part of what made this AD animation intriguing. He used the animation technique of anthropomorphism by showing the breathing movements of the dolls. The film used a lot Of imagination, emotion and drama. The short video told a complete story without missing any plots, which made the mood of the piece very mysterious and suspenseful. Till the very end of the film, kept wondering what was going to happen next, if the witch doctor was going to spot the escaped doll or if the doll was going to successfully kill the doctorate.I also felt sympathy for the dolls because they looked worried and frightened. The uses of deem lightning was a major contribution to the eerie feel of the animation. It was easy to understand that the film was going to be gloomy and dark because of the low lightning. The dark silhouette of the witch doctor also contributed to the fear of the unknown. The juxtaposition of light and darkness was also emphasized. The dark lights in the b eginning and the bright lights at the end enhanced the story and plot. The witchdoctor symbolized darkness and the voodoo dolls ironically, symbolized light and hope.When the witch doctor died, a bright light filled the room, which showed that good always wins against evil and the voodoo dolls had been saved. Right from the onset of the film, the moody soundtrack, which played through out the film at different tempos, sets up a mysterious atmosphere of suspense, fear and tension. The music, which is non-dietetic, gave the animation a dark and sinister feel. Before the witch doctor pinned the first voodoo doll, the soundtrack was exciting and drum eke, but after the doll fell to the table, the sound track changed to a mournful tone.The moody soundtrack supplemented the lack of dialogue and narration as the soundtrack also told the story. Aside from mood music, there were also dietetic sounds; flickering lights, footsteps, switching of the light switch and opening and closing of doors were also important details as they added to the feeling of suspense and fear of the unknown. Additionally, the animation was fairly cartoon but the voodoo dolls had realistic human like movements. The animation was also very full as there are a lot Of movements, which improved the quality Of the animation.The themes of life and death used in this piece showed a higher level of maturity because they rose above basic themes usually used for exaggerated animations. The last few seconds of the animation, touched on a contemporary subject matter that is important today- self-sacrifice. Sacrificing our personal needs for the ones we love can lead to a greater good. Just like how the escaped voodoo doll was courageous in sacrificing his own life by facing off the evil antagonist, e was able to save the other voodoo dolls from death.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Purpose of higher education Essay

The purpose of higher education has been a topic of debate for many years. There was a long period when the majority agreed that higher education is the key to success, there is nothing to argue about that. However, nowadays, regarding having higher education as an investment, many people, especially students, think that what they lose is much bigger than what they gain from higher education. In other words, they believe that what higher education brings them does not deserve what they pay for it. In my opinion, what we benefit from higher education cannot be measured by money. For me, the highest purpose of higher education is to create prepared minds, which are priceless. At the same time, the unfortunate results that students get from higher education, I believe, are due to the dishonest ways they use to deal with the exams and unpleasant situation when having higher education. Stop cheating and understand thoroughly the purpose of higher education, we will definitely recognize the benefit we gain from it. Cheating, as mentioned above, is the act of using dishonest methods to get rewards or to deal with obstacles. Regarding the scene of higher education, cheating includes â€Å"cribbing homework, plagiarizing essays from the Internet, or texting test answers to a friend’s cell phone† (Studies Shed Light on How Cheating Impedes Learning, Sarah). Students just do anything they can to get an â€Å"A† and graduate with their degree on time. However, it is just the delusion of success. The highest purpose of higher education is not to have as many graduated students as possible. Teachers can just take the pen and give as many As to students as they want, then their jobs are done. Students do not even need to attend the exams. Nevertheless, that universities hold exams is not to set scores for students. Exams are meant to check whether students’ knowledge and skills are enough for the next level, for their life or not. Cheating may help students to get rewards for the short-run but will surely bring them nothing in the long-run. Put those cheating acts aside and take a closer look again at the purpose of higher education, we can see that  there are skills and knowledge that we can learn from nowhere but higher education. Without those basic tools, we will step into life dazzling with new things and great challenges. If by any chance we miss any of those skill and knowledge, it is necessary to come back and learn again, until we get what we need. Unfortunately, many students are not aware of the importance of doing so. According to Lucas’s blog, â€Å"students feel they are getting ahead when they cheat† and â€Å"students who cheat deceive themselves into believing they deserve better grades†. They do not know that they actually â€Å"are falling into a feedback loop in which they fall further and further behind†. Besides, it is necessary to emphasize that the prepared minds that higher education creates are not used only for getting a stable career, but also for dealing with problems in our jobs, family and life. Coming to these micro areas, cheating is no more just a simple act that can be fixed or even ignored. The consequences from plagiarism (one type of cheating) are much more severe, when we can even be imprisoned. I totally agree with Lucas when he says in his blog that â€Å"students who cheat in high school are more likely to be dishonest as adult in the workplace†. We should adjust our behavior appropriately to prevent forming bad habits as well as to achieve the right purpose of higher education. Last but not least, it is the most important question that how we can achieve the purpose of higher education? How can we have prepared minds from higher education? The answer is simple but the action is not: discourage cheating; stand on our own foot and make all the effort that we have. Teacher needs to help students understand the â€Å"importance of academic integrity and learning, not just grades, can make them less likely to cheat†. The three methods that Lucas mentioned are the least that teachers should do: â€Å"carefully reduce opportunities to cheat†; â€Å"establishing class or school honor codes† and â€Å"discuss the importance of academic integrity prior to each assignment†. In conclusion, it is true that everyone has the incentives to find easy ways to get rewards or to deal with unpleasant situations. However, cheating to succeed only brings us delusion of success. It is extremely dangerous when we apply dishonest ways to pass the higher e ducation time. The purpose of higher education is surely compromised by cheating acts and if we are not aware of that, we may gain a lot at the beginning but in the end, we will get nothing.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

An Empirical Investigation of the Corporate Culture-Financial Article

An Empirical Investigation of the Corporate Culture-Financial Performance Relationship in Multinational Corporations - Article Example Webster's Dictionary defines corporate culture as "the shared values, traditions, customers, philosophy, and policies of a corporation; also, the professional atmosphere that grows from this and affects behavior and performance." In essence, "corporate culture is the personality of your organization. It's the way your company does business and how it conducts itself. It's employees' beliefs and expectations of work." (Ceridian, 2005). Corporate culture and the cultural statements that it engenders then become the modus operandi for corporate members when the executives' voice and document the values of the corporation to provide models for how corporate members should behave (1000ventures). There are various numbers of definitions available regarding corporate culture. Various academic scholars and authors have defined it in different ways. Despite having differences in definitions many would agree on one thing that corporate culture can be referred to as a set of values, beliefs, and behavior patterns that form the core identity of the organization, and help shape the employees' behavior ( Rashid et al, 2003). According to Tichy et al ( 1982), corporate culture is a directive glue where the appropriate questions to ask concern the values and beliefs that are needed to support the corporate strategy, the subcultures that might also contribute to this goal and whether or not there should be an umbrella corporate culture as well. As an extension of the foregoing, another question is also on the role of the human resources department in shaping and molding the corporate culture. Corporate culture can also be interpreted as collective mental programming that binds the organization together through shared values, which ensure that employees are committed to their nominated responsibilities which can lead to achieving organizational goals together ( Hofstede, 1980). Much of what has been written on the definition of corporate culture proceeds by comparison of one type with another. Culture is by definition a varied and variable subject. There is no overall cultural norm in the world, nor any cultural "mean" or average that can be usefully applied. By comparison with the financial sections of corporate annual reports that allow average revenue, profitability, investment and so on to be calculated precisely (which is not necessarily the same as meaningfully), corporate culture requires a different tack (Hofstede, 1980). Having said that culture is defined by comparison, rather than any intrinsic and absolute qualities, corporate culture does display a difference in how it acquires shape and form. Within the corporate environment, culture is strongly influenced by the corporate leaders who are natural role models for other employees. The qualities of a leader in his opinion are forged by experience, trial and error, and practical application. The more a leader has been exposed to these aspects, the stronger the leadership becomes and the more influence the leader exerts on the corporate culture of the company concerned (Mintzberg, 1989).

Method Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Method - Essay Example The antioxidants stock solutions were prepared separately. Four hundred milligrams of L-ascorbic acid and tannic acid were dissolved in 5 mL of water to make a stock solution of 80 mg/mL. Forty milligrams of epigallocatechin were dissolved in 5 mL water for a concentration of stock solution of 8 mg/mL. Cells of Staphylococcus aureus strains SH1000 and UAMS-1 were streaked on Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates and incubated 37Â °C for 24 hours. After this period, single colonies were picked, and transferred to tubes with Mueller-Hinton Broth (MHB). The tubes were placed in an incubator-shaker at 37 Â °C for another 24 hours. The overnight cultures in MHB, after appropriate dilution, served as the inocula for the experimental determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics and antioxidants, and mutational frequencies (MF). Overnight cultures were always used fresh, and not after storage. The desired antibiotic starting concentrations were obtained by diluting the desired volume from the stock solutions. For the determination of the mupirocin MIC, the starting concentration was 16 Â µg/mL. This amount was diluted doubly using sterile saline to produce decreasing concentrations of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, and 0.03125 Â µg/mL. The starting concentration of rifampicin was 2 Â µg/mL. Again, double dilution was performed. The following concentrations were used to determine the rifampicin MIC: 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.03125, 0.01563, 0.0078, and 0.0039 Â µg/mL. To determine the MICs of the antioxidants that were to be used in the experiment, the antioxidants solutions were also serially diluted similar to what was done for the antimicrobials mupirocin and rifampicin. The starting concentration of all the antioxidants was 8 mg/mL. After double dilutions, the concentrations used were 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.03125, and 0.01563 mg/mL. Cellulose ester disks with 0.22 Â µm

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Circadian Rhythms Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Circadian Rhythms - Essay Example Circadian rhythm takes place in wide variety of organisms apart from humans and are controlled by environmental and internal factors. Temperature and light are the common environmental factors. The circadian cycle is controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus located in hypothalamus region of brain that influences the sleep-wake cycle by receiving signals from retina of eye about light and dark. The photoreceptor cells in retina transmit signals on light activation and deactivation via neurons of retinohypothalamic tract to the SCN, which are further transmitted to pineal gland via the superior cervical ganglion.  Circadian rhythm takes place in wide variety of organisms apart from humans and are controlled by environmental and internal factors. Temperature and light are the common environmental factors. The circadian cycle is controlled by suprachiasmatic nucleus located in hypothalamus region of brain that influences the sleep-wake cycle by receiving signals from retina of eye about l ight and dark. The photoreceptor cells in retina transmit signals on light activation and deactivation via neurons of retinohypothalamic tract to the SCN, which are further transmitted to pineal gland via the superior cervical ganglion.   The superior cervical ganglion releases noradrenaline into pineal cells during dark, which is followed by transformation of serotonin into melatonin. The SCN leads to the release of more melatonin hormone from pineal gland when the light levels are low that in-turn influences the brainstem mechanisms.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Criminology and criminal justice in The United Arab Emirates Essay

Criminology and criminal justice in The United Arab Emirates - Essay Example UAE has been established in December 2, 1971 with Abu Dhabi as the capital owing to its industrial and cultural activities. Their official language is Arabic and their official religion is slam. Economic wise, UAE is considered to have a strong high income with a GDP of $ 47,407. UAE based their political system on the 1971 constitution however each ruler of each federation retain an absolute power in their own emirate. Interestingly, the seven emirs vote for a president of the seven federations to be their leader however this does not affect the governance of each emir. UAE also has a semiautonomous body referred to as the National Guards with duties to guard the border, utilities in the oil field and other strategic locations. They also act as reserve in cases the metropolitan police force is in need of reinforcement from them. Abu Dhabi and Dubai police are the leading police forces in the UAE with their quality services. Abu Dhabi police department is honored to have maintained the shining image of the country with the dedication, honesty, and integrity of the policemen. Dubai policemen also pride themselves of preventing crimes before it occurs, bringing justice, maintaining security and order, and honoring and protecting lives with their mission in making Dubai the best in such services around the world. UAE has several police divisions to include traffic, criminal investigation, emergency police, nationality and passport, civil defense, immigration, prison, trials and court-martials with their own functions and responsibilities.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Oprtions Mngement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Oprtions Mngement - Essay Example The contribution of n opertions strtegy is lso outlined s prt of hierrchy of strtegies tht we might find in ech firm. It gives n insight into wht is exctly n opertions strtegy nd wht re its components, how esy is it to implement such strtegy nd wht cn n orgnistion expect from it. Bsiclly, the pper discusses the question of diversity of tsks tht opertions mngement incorportes nd tht these tsks should be combined to rech the potentil of opertions executed. Opertions mngement hs its origins in the study of 'production' or 'mnufcturing mngement'. (Pine, Boynton, 2003) These terms still very much pply to mnufcturing orgnistions tht will hve distinct opertionl ctivities tht convert sy, bens nd rich tomto suce into cns of bked bens to be sold by retiler. Thus, we cn initilly think of opertions mngement s being prt of distinct function producing product nd service combintion, just s we hve mrketing nd ccounting functions in mny orgnistions. The first definition of opertions mngement is therefore: Every orgnistion tht offers goods or services hs n opertions ctivity. s fr s the orgnistion structure is concerned, some firms will hve discrete opertions function. This might be clled mnufcturing deprtment, n opertions system, or hve no identifible nme t ll. However, like mrketing nd ccounting, it is fundmentl function of the firm with professionlly trined opertions or production mngers responsible for conversion of resources into the required product nd service combintions. In some orgnistions such mngers will hve different titles, store mnger for retiler, dministrtive mngers within hospitl or distribution mngers in logistics compny. This first definition tends to be rther nrrow s it pplies to core conversion processes (mostly mnufcturing). We need therefore to widen the definition of opertions mngement to second level: The design, opertion nd improvement of the internl nd externl systems, resources nd technologies tht crete

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Evolution of Corporate Social Responisbility Essay

Evolution of Corporate Social Responisbility - Essay Example Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has grown as a part of management and corporate governance during the last two decades. However, it is hard to imagine that this concept, corporate social responsibility, only started in the Western world in the end of the 18th century. Discussion includes the evolution of CSR and how this concept has come to life during the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. But what is noticeable through this regurgitation of history remains the hard battle that common people had to fight in order to have a humane society to live in; hence the crucial foundation of corporate social responsibility. The actual term came to light in the beginning of the 20th century, in which this ideology was concerned with a series of corporate scandals in the United States. According to a variety of sources CSR was accepted in different companies and corporations as a part of corporate management in different periods of the 20th century. In recent times, one can clarify four main opinions about CSR and corporate social investing habits in CSR: classical and modern view, cost and beneficial view of such investing in long-term run (Quazi and O'Brien, 2000). This paper examines the evolution of CSR, in terms of the development and integration of this social responsibility into corporate behaviour. ... Section three discusses the Second Industrial Revolution, time in which the world was stricken by different corporate scandals, and in response, the on-set of firms announcing CSR as a part of management and private organisations. Section four highlights the basic changes, which were brought by World War II. These changes were critical in defining the development of CSR. Modern times and establishing CSR in different companies and countries, particularly in Japan, are described in sections five and six, respectively. 2. First Industrial Revolution (1760-1830) This section will discuss the transformation of job structures, capitalism and suffering people for the First Industrial Revolution. Our discussion of the evolution of CSR begins with the First Industrial Revolution because it was an important step in economic transformation. 2.1 Transformation of job structure: New Technologies The First Industrial Revolution was a great step in economic transformation. Its birth is attributed to the introduction of new technologies of production. There was rapid growth in productivity and living standards. The First Industrial Revolution originated in Great Britain around 1760. It was marked (Chandler, 1977) by the adoption of three new technologies: the steam engine, relying on the energy of the fossil fuel, coal; machines for spinning thread and weaving cloth; furnaces- to make iron ore into finished metal by using coal. During the period of the First Industrial Revolution, 1760 till 1830, the transformation of societies took place. It was a marked change from agricultural and rural society to industrialize and urbanize. Before those processes all of the factory's employment was domestic labour, or the so-called cottage

Friday, August 23, 2019

Common Wealth Alliance Case Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Common Wealth Alliance Case - Essay Example Due to low-income, they do not qualify for enrollment by other insurance agencies. Cutting down on healthcare costs, which CCA advocates for, is thus necessary. The model involves a strategy that promotes patient-centered healthcare making medication affordable. CCA adopts an approach that facilitates quality health support to the elderly and disabled patients with complex needs. It appreciates simplified ways of avoiding medical complications such as multiple medical specialists for an elder suffering from chronic illness. It not only makes healthcare provision undemanding but also affordable for its beneficiaries. Senior care plan focuses on enhancing flexible and continued care for the elderly. Unlike other insurance models, CCA prefers adult day care to nursing homes. Care providers are volunteers organized into care delivery networks. CCA program also entails joint contracts with Medicare and Medicaid, for example, the operation of three Massachusetts care programs in May 2007. CCA’s senior care options (SCO) program eligibility is broader than that for other insurance providers. Elderly beneficiaries do not have to be nursing home certifiable. Notably, it admits younger patients with complicated health conditions. Specific servicers offered depend on the needs of the patient and their availability in the local setup. Teaching patients self-care and provision of home health aides reduces the necessity for nursing home placement. SCO fund services not covered by Medicaid. Funding of services not covered by Medicaid presents beneficiaries with reliable quality services. Apart from the services mentioned above, patients also enjoy skilled nursing care and transportation. It includes all components of care either directly or through subcontracts. CCA aims at bringing better health care to its beneficiaries. Central to CCA’s goal is the improvement in self-management of multiple recurring illnesses. Once acquired, self-care skills are

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Liverpool one shopping development Essay Example for Free

Liverpool one shopping development Essay Liverpool’s CBD needed regeneration for a variety of reasons. During WW2, it was bombed heavily, due to it being a major port for resources from the USA. During the 1960s, it was rebuilt too quickly and then fell into disrepair before 2000, when the design and infrastructure was outdated. Many parts of the city, especially the CBD suffered from urban decline, with its population dropping by 50% and 45% of its industry also leaving. In addition, Liverpool faced competition for shopping by nearby Manchester and Chester, as well as out-of-town shopping centres like the Trafford Centre. Therefore, Liverpool’s CBD needed regeneration to be more attractive to consumers, and regain its spot in the top 5 shopping destinations in the UK. Liverpool One, the project to rejuvenate Liverpool’s CBD was completed in 2008. It was opened in phases on 29 May and 1 October 2008, with the final residential lots opening in early 2009. In the same year, Liverpool was named as the European Capital of Culture. Its total cost is approximately ? 1billion, with 42 acres of Liverpool city centre being redeveloped. It includes 3000 parking spaces, 169 stores or services, as well as a 5 acre park, and 500 new apartments. It also contains a 14-screen cinema and a 36-hole adventure golf centre. Shops present include Debenhams, John Lewis, Ted Baker, Waterstones, Starbucks, Topshop and Caffe Nero. These are all mainly comparison, high-order goods which are chain stores. The area is indoor, yet also mainly open-air. It is of a modern design, and is two storeys tall. There are many cafes and food areas, with many benches. There are also electronic maps and information panels across the centre. The pedestrian areas are wide and escalators are available to proceed to the higher floors. There have also been other improvements in the CBD, such as the rejuvenation of the Docks and the introduction of the Merseytram tram line in the CBD. As well as this, many roads and smaller streets in Liverpool have been rejuvenated and rebuilt as part of the redevelopments. Areas such as Princes Dock and the Kings Waterfront have seen heavy redevelopments. These have been to attract more tourists and shoppers to the CBD. The project has overall been successful as of yet, with 83% of consumers thinking that the city centre has improved. 91% of people said they were likely to return to Liverpool, and enjoyed the experience. And now, 40% of the shops in Liverpool One are new to the city, showing the popularity of the area. The previously redeveloped Albert Dock has been receiving an extra 100000 visitors per week, with Liverpool One itself receiving over 120000 visitors in the first day, and 13 million in the first year. It is safe the say the rejuvenation of Liverpool’s CBD has been a success, and that Liverpool One has played a big part in reversing the effect of urban decline.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Teaching and Learning Approach Essay Example for Free

Teaching and Learning Approach Essay Every learner has their own strengths and weaknesses that are reflect in the group. As a Teacher I must understand and focus on utilizing each learners strengths and work to improve on their weaknesses. All learners learn in a different ways and also from one another. The ideas and views of each learner brings to the classroom can bring insight into what is being learned. The classroom is a safe zone that appreciates individuals’ views and allows room for mistakes. Learners have to be allowed to explore new ideas, try them to see if they work, and sometimes fail. When learners are encouraged to explore, they begin to learn. Being a teacher means teaching students new information, drawing on their experiences and about being successful in life. â€Å"A session plan is a detailed breakdown of your scheme of work. It will outline all the teaching and learning activities, with allocated timings, assessment activities and resources required. It will also take into account the individual requirements of your students.† (Gravells, 5th Edition, p.63) A learner can have several different ways of learning style depending on the situation and task, a students learning style for on task may not be the same for a topic, subject or task. If a difference between the students learning style and a teachers teaching style occurs, this could lead to boredom, frustration at not understanding, low self-esteem (both learners and teachers), poor grades and dropouts. It is important to include a range of different teaching styles into the lessons, to help all students learn more successfully. To meet learners’ different needs a variety of interactive teaching and learning approaches need to be employed. Active learning engages and motivates learners to learn and achieve Good statement. There are hundreds of teaching and learning methods to choose from when deciding on the method to use for a particular class. Skills are needed in identifying and classifying those methods that could be of use to the individual teacher and students and in a evaluating the outcome achieved. I would plan my lessons, embedding the driver’s handbooks (PCV/HGV) and Highway Code and various driver’s rules and regulations: (embedding them within the learning). There are various factors that will limit the way people use the information effectively. I would also draw on the learners experiences as a useful tool as periodic training is about, Revision of what you know, Updating with changes and Sharing information between drivers. The goal of teaching is to develop proper and positive attitudes towards driving needs and to prompt lifelong skill. There are many learning styles and I used Affective Learning style, (Activities are designed so students are able to develop skills that will allow them to gain the full understanding of developing their skills and responsible behaviours), Allowing students to have a chance to participate having students understanding that they are allowed to try, fail, and then try again this will help them understand they cant be perfect every time they do something. Positive help from the teacher will keep the learner focused on the goal of developing their skills. Promote the use of working together in completing a task or goal. Using peer instruction where students teach each other and provide accurate and helpful feedback. (http://cstiles5.tripod.com/id6.html) With active learning is the time-spent teaching an understanding and development of the learner’s skills and the abilities of the individuals. I used group discussions, multiple questions. This would help to improve learner’s skills and there understanding road safety. At the end I gave out hand-outs to my learner to help them remember the main points of the session. At the end of session my peers complete a feedback so I can evaluate the session and complete reflective journal as how this session went.

Wireless Local Loop

Wireless Local Loop Wireless Local Loop Abstract-A local loop connects a subscriber to the service providers switch, this connection is usually a wire; typically copper wire. Advanced studies on the capabilities of copper wire as a transmission medium has made it possible to use the local loop to offer services other than the basic voice service. This technology known as digital subscriber line technology (DSL) utilizes the existing copper wires to provide high speed data services. Optical fibre is a better option particularly for its large bandwidth but cost restricts its use as a local loop. Wireless local loop eliminates the need for wires as the subscribers equipment is wirelessly connected to the providers network. Wireless local loop (WLL) is a popular alternative as it has been deployed in both developed and developing nations because of its advantages. With an ever increasing demand to access the internet, the wireless local loop has evolved seeking to meet such demand. This paper looks at the several wireless local loop technologies as well as its prospects and future as a medium for broadband wireless services. Keywords: Wireless Local Loop, Internet, Broadband INTRODUCTION The local loop refers to the circuit terminating at the subscribers premises connecting the subscriber equipment to the switch of the telecommunications provider. It is the last lap of the providers infrastructure over which services are delivered to the user, hence, the term â€Å"last mile† is also used to refer to the local loop. Copper wires have been the principal candidate for the local loop providing voice service for telephony. However, digital subscriber line technology (DSL) makes it possible to use existing copper wires to offer services other than voice such as data, video, and multimedia services. One form of digital subscriber line technology (DSL), asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is the most commonly used today. Optical fibre has a lot of advantages over copper wire and that makes it an excellent choice for local loop but its cost is prohibitive. Wireless local loop also known as radio local loop uses radio signals to complete the last lap to the users premises. Wireless local loop is particularly suited to remote locations providing access to providers infrastructure and in areas where the terrain makes it impossible to lay cables. Wireless local loop offers a number of advantages over its wireline counterpart. 1) Fast deployment 2) Low installation cost 3) Low maintenance cost 4) High system capacity There are several wireless local loop (WLL) technologies available, hence, the technology deployed for a particular area will depend on the population density and service needs of the users. The rest of the paper is organized as follows, in section II, the wireless local loop architecture is considered. Section III presents the wireless local loop technologies followed by the wireless local loop for broadband services in section IV. Section V concludes the paper. WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The wireless local loop architecture is shown in figure 1. The fixed subscriber unit (FSU) is an interface between subscribers wired devices and wireless local loop network. The wired devices can be computers as well as telephones. The fixed subscriber performs channel coding and decoding, modulation and demodulation, and transmission/reception of signal via radio. The base transceiver system (BTS) performs channel coding/decoding, modulation and demodulation as well as transmission and reception of signal via radio. The base transceiver system is also referred to as the radio port (RP). A base station controller (BSC) controls one or more base transceiver systems (BTSs) and provides an interface to the local exchange (switch) in the central office [22]. WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP TECHNOLOGIES A. Microcellular based systems These systems provide low delay, low power and high quality services in a small coverage area. Compared with the cellular based wireless local loop, more base stations are required to cover the same service area. They are typically operated at 800MHz, 1.5GHz, 1.8GHz, and 1.9GHz frequency bands [77]. 1) Personal access communication system (PACS) Personal access communication system (PACS) is a low power radio system for both personal communication system applications and for fixed wireless loop applications. Personal access communication system is optimized to provide basic capabilities to support wireless local loop and additional capabilities to support mobility. The service capabilities of personal access communication system include voice, fax, voiceband data, and wireless digital data. The basic personal access communication handset can handle user with vehicle speeds up to about 50km/hr []. The personal access communication system architecture is shown in figure 2. The radio port (RP) function as radio frequency (RF) modems. Personal access communication system (PACS) uses time division multiple access (TDMA) on the uplink and time division multiplexing (TDM) on the downlink. The personal access communication system protocol supports switching to alternate channels when one radio port (RP) is busy [36]. 2) Personal handyphone system (PHS) Personal handyphone system is a low range personal communications services (PCS) technology that was developed in Japan to support very high density pedestrian traffic and wireless local loop. It is built on a foundation of digital cordless technology and microcell architecture [26]. Personal handyphone system (PHS) personal stations consist of handheld units that can operate as simple cordless phones, as transceivers for communications with other personal stations, or as mobile terminals to access the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The mode of operation must be selected by the user [26]. 3) Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications (DECT) is a radio interface standard developed in Europe mainly for indoor wireless applications [26]. Digital enhanced cordless telecommunications is a flexible digital radio access standard for cordless communications in residential, corporate, and public environment. In Europe, digital enhanced cordless telecommunications utilizes the 1880-1900 MHz frequency range. The DECT radio interface is based on the Multicarrier/Time division multiple access/Time division duplex (MC/TDMA/TDD) radio access methodology. Basic DECT frequency (1800-1900 MHz) is allocated to 10carrier frequencies, and the time is organized in frames. Each frame lasts for 10ms and consists of 24 timeslots separated into two fixed parts [37]. The fixed part (FP) consists of three entities; radio fixed port, central system, interworking unit. The radio fixed port terminates the air interface protocol. The central system provides a cluster controller functionality managing a number of radio fixed ports. The interworking unit provides all the necessary function for the DECT radio system to interwork with the attached wireline network; which can be: the public switched telephone network (PSTN), and the packet switched public data network [36]. B. Cellular based systems These systems are characterised by large power, high mobility and relatively low data rate over a large area. Cellular wireless local loop technologies are primarily used to expand the basic telephony services. Typically, they operate in the mobile frequency bands at 800-900 MHz, 1.8-1.9 GHz, and sometimes at 450 MHz or 1.5 GHz. For relatively sparsely populated rural and even urban settings, wireless local loop technologies based on existing cellular systems can be economical and rapidly deployed [77]. 1) Time division multiple access (IS-136/GSM) Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a multiple access technique which divides a channel into a number of timeslots. For TDMA system, there are two prevalent standards: North American telecommunications/electronics industry association (TIA/EIA) IS-136 and European telecommunications standards institute (ETSI) global system for mobile telecommunications (GSM). The IS-136 standard uses Ï€/4-Quadrature phase shift keying (Ï€/4-QPSK) modulation scheme while the GSM standard uses Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) modulation. Also the channel bandwidth of the two systems is different (30 kHz for IS-136 and 200 KHz for GSM). GSM has a frame length of 4.615 ms instead of 40 ms for IS-136 [26]. Although GSM currently dominates mobile digital cellular and provides high quality voice, there has been little activity in using GSM as a wireless local loop platform. Being designed to handle international roaming, it carries a large amount of overhead that makes it unwieldly and costly for wireless local loop applications [36]. 2) Code division multiple access (IS-95/W-CDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a multiple access technique that employs spread spectrum technique. CDMA (IS-95) is a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system where the entire bandwidth of the system 1.25 MHz is made available to the user. The bandwidth is many times larger than the bandwidth required for transmitting information [26]. IS-95A standard has been TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP SERVICES developed for a digital cellular system with direct sequence (DS) CDMA technology, operating at 800MHz band. IS-95 based CDMA wireless local loop can support two rate sets. A code channel (traffic channel) operates at a maximum of 9.6 kbps with the rate set 1 or 14.4 kbps with rate set 2. IS-95B offers high speed data services through code aggregation. In IS-95B systems, multiple codes (up to eight codes) may be assigned to a connection [22]. In CDMA systems pseudo-noise (PN) sequences are used for the different user signals with the same transmission bandwidth [26]. Wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) in comparison with narrowband CDMA systems (IS-95) use higher chip rate for direct sequence spread spectrum and, thus, spread its information into wider spectrum bandwidth (typically, equal to or over 5 MHz). Thus, data rate per code channel in W-CDMA can be higher than that in narrowband system. The wireless local loop standard defines several options for voice codecs: 64 kbps PCM, 32 kbps ADPCM, 16 kbps LD-CELP, and 8 kbps conjugate structure algebraic-code-excited linear prediction (CS-ACELP) [22]. CDMA based systems offer higher capacity and flexibility compared to other digital standards [36]. C. Satellite based systems These systems provide telephony services for rural communities and isolated areas such as islands [26]. These systems can be either of technology designed specifically for wireless local loop applications or of technology piggybacked onto mobile satellite systems as an adjunct service. Satellite technology has been used to provide telephony to remote areas of the world for many years. Such systems provide an alternative to terrestrial telephony systems where landlines are not cost effective or where an emergency backup is required [77]. A user can access the public switched telephone network (PSTN) via satellite indirectly from a wireless local loop facility through a small satellite terminal and a geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellite. A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) terminal usually includes a 0.6-2.4 m dish antenna and a transceiver radio (outdoor unit) as well as a set of baseband and intermediate frequency (IF) subsystems (indoor units). In hybrid architectures, the VS AT is connected to a wireless local loop base station through the local switching exchange [24]. D. Proprietary systems These systems are considered proprietary because they are not available on the public wireless networks and are typically customized for a specific application. They generally do not provide mobility. Proprietary systems are, therefore, positioned to provide basic fixed wireless telephony. WIRELESS LOCAL LOOP FOR BROADBAND SERVICES For services requiring large bandwidths, such as video on demand, broadband wireless systems are suitable because of their higher frequency ranges. A. Local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS) Local multipoint distribution systems (LMDS) is a radio based access technology with cellular architecture offering flexible high capacity connections to private users and organizations [8]. Depending on the particular spectrum allocation policy, operation of LMDS systems take place at millimetre waves (typically 28 GHz in the United States and 40 GHz in Europe), enabling the exploitation of more than 1GHz operational bandwidth. This allows a plethora of multimedia services at data rates of hundreds of megabits per second [2]. Interactive LMDS has a point to multipoint downlink and a point to point uplink. The capacity of the return channel is determined by the needs of the individual user [8]. B. Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) Worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is a wireless communication technology capable of providing very high data rates over a large area. According to standards, WiMAX can support up to a 75 Mb/s data rate (single channel) and cover up to 30 miles [6]. The technology can provide fast and cheap broadband access to areas that lack infrastructure such as rural areas [4]. WiMAX technology supports two network modes: point to point (PMP) and mesh. A PMP network is designed primarily to provide for providing last mile access to the service provider, it consists of a base station (BS) and subscriber stations (SSs) and both uplink and downlink channels are shared among the subscriber stations. PMP mode requires all subscriber stations to be within the transmission range and clear line of sight (LOS) of the base station. The mesh network, on the other hand, is a multihop ad hoc network in which all nodes act as relaying routers in addition to their sender and receiver roles [1]. CONCLUSION The advantages of wireless local loop over the wired loop especially in the areas of fast deployment and installation cost continue to make it an attractive option for rural areas and difficult terrains. As with most wireless communication systems, the quality versus coverage area compromise remains an issue. However, the emergence of broadband wireless systems promises quality service over a considerable area, though, cost is a limiting factor. The wireless local loop market is expected to continue to grow in developed countries to compete with wired loop providers and in developing countries to connect many that are without service. REFERENCES [1] D.G. Jeong, and W.S. Jeon, â€Å"Current and future services using wireless local loop systems,† International Journal of Communication Systems, vol 13, pp. 289-301, 2000. [2]A.R. Noerpel, and Yi- Bing Lin, â€Å"Wireless local loop: Architecture, Technologies and Services,† IEEE Personal Communications, pp. 74-80, June 1998. [3] N. Cotanis, and B. Jabbari, â€Å"Wireless local loop radio systems,† Computer Networks, vol 31, pp. 343-352, 1999. [4] I.S. Barbounakis, P. Stavroulakis, and J.G. Gardiner, â€Å"General aspects of digital technologies for wireless local loops,† International Journal of Communication Systems, vol 13, pp. 187-206, 2000. [5] Th. Zahariadis, â€Å"Evolution of the wireless PAN and LAN standards,† Computer Standards and Interfaces, vol 26, pp. 175-185, 2000. [6] R. Conte, â€Å"Satellite rural communications: telephony and narrowband networks,† International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, vol23, pp. 307-321, 2005. [7]A. Nordbotten, â€Å"LMDS and their Application,† IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 150 -154, June 2000. [8] A.D. Panagopoulos, P.M. Arapoglou, J.D. Kanellopoulos, and P.G. Cottis, â€Å"Intercell Radio Interference studies in Broadband wireless networks,† IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol 56, No. 1, pp. 3-12, January 2007. [9] K. Lu, Y. Qian, H. Chen, and S. Fu, â€Å"WiMAX Networks: From Access to Service Platform,† IEEE Network, pp. 38-45, May/June 2008. [10] Z. Abichar, Y. Peng, and J.M. Chang, â€Å"WiMAX: The Emergence of Wireless Broadband,† IT Pro, pp. 44-48, July/August 2006. [11] K. Lu, Y. Qian, and H. Chen, â€Å"A Secure and Service-Oriented Network Control framework for WiMAX Networks,† IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 124-130, May 2007.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Livin’ On the Edge :: Term Papers Research

Livin’ On the Edge There was less than a foot between life and death and it was all because they were trying to cheat the system. This is what I learned from two fellow college students I met while waiting in line for my hot chocolate at Late for the Train. Good thing there was a long line because they had quite the story to tell. What I got out of their story is that some people choose to live on the edge to get more fulfillment out of life, but many times that extra fulfillment just isn’t worth it. Two young college students were going home for Christmas break to visit their families in St. Louis, Illinois. Dan is a guy who spends so much time in the outdoors that the critters know him by name. He lives in the back of his pick-up unless it is so cold that his drool freezes down the side of his face. In that case he finds a friend who will let him roll out his camping pad and crash on the floor, and if he is lucky they will let him use the shower. Dan’s shoulder length hair is so curly that it looks as if he got a perm but left the curling rods in for an extra day. You could probably call him a â€Å"hippy† even though he would never refer to himself as one. Dan told me most of their story while Matt stood there and nodded every once in awhile. Matt seemed more laidback than Dan and didn’t seem to have a care in the world. He’d like to let himself think that he is adventurous, but in reality his biggest adventure is finding a gas station that’s open at 3:00am so he can pick up a bag of Cheetos. Dan and Matt decided to be adventurous so they planned to drive from Flagstaff, AZ up through Utah, and then make their way towards Illinois. They would stay in the back of Dan’s white Toyota Tacoma because he was blessed with the luxury of having a topper. This topper allowed Dan to create a home in the back of his pick-up filled with sleeping bags, a camping pad, hiking gear, dirty clothes, and old garbage from McDonald’s. Dan seemed to be very proud of his topper, because he even gave me a tour of it as I left the coffee shop.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Positives of TV :: Television

Many years ago, almost no one had a television set. Now there are more houses with TV than ever. There is a lot of discussion about whether television is a good or bad influence for family life. There are many negative points and also many positive ones. Now I will run through some of each. One of the first reasons why parents should limit the amount of time their children spend watching TV is that children read less and watch TV more and of course this will lead into a lack of exercise. Therefore parents should help their children watch TV and read equally. Plus encourage them to move a lot due to the increase in number of obese people and practice other activities. Another complaint is that there is too much violence and sexual reference that can be accessed easily by children, this can destroy a young child's mind easily. Watching violent television programs teaches aggressive attitudes and behaviors and the children might try to imitate the bad behavior that these programs show, and bad expression because they wants to act like them as adults by thinking this is the right thing. Moreover, parents must have control and know what programs their children are watching. TV has many positive points, as it is considered an extremely valuable machine that provides us with relaxation and education. For example, People who have been working hard all day will look forward to watch an episode of a favorite show. This period of relaxation will reduce their stress and leaves viewers refreshed and ready to take all works again. Besides it?s a good option for parents who are tried trying to entertain their kids, to sit them down in front of a cartoon to take some rest. However it must not be done frequently. Secondly, the most important point about television is getting education. Children can learn colors, numbers, and letters from programs that shows on televisions like Barney. Also, it provides us with valuable information by covering important events and current news.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

A Comparison of Two Barbecue Restaurants Essay -- comparison compare c

The Best Barbecue in the South    Barbecue is one of my favorite foods. I have always enjoyed going into some greasy barbecue dive, listening to the blues, and feeling pretty cool. Two joints where I have eaten are Big D's Piggy Strut Soul Pit Bar-B-Q in Clemson, South Carolina, and Hy's Deli right across from the School campus. Even though both of these restaurants pride themselves on their barbecue, Big D's is obviously the better. As I walked into the Piggy Strut for the first time, I immediately noticed the different atmosphere. The sign at the entrance said, "Seat yourself if you want to eat here!" As I looked around, I saw some fat guy in the corner really jamming on an electric guitar. (I later learned that was Big D himself.) After much deliberation I decided to sit at the bar. Here, I ordered my sandwich and sat next to the cook after he made it. We watched cartoons for about an hour. Hy's Deli, on the other hand, had a sign that read "Please feel free to seat yourself" in the entrance. Next, I noticed everyone staring at me. There were ten or twelv... A Comparison of Two Barbecue Restaurants Essay -- comparison compare c The Best Barbecue in the South    Barbecue is one of my favorite foods. I have always enjoyed going into some greasy barbecue dive, listening to the blues, and feeling pretty cool. Two joints where I have eaten are Big D's Piggy Strut Soul Pit Bar-B-Q in Clemson, South Carolina, and Hy's Deli right across from the School campus. Even though both of these restaurants pride themselves on their barbecue, Big D's is obviously the better. As I walked into the Piggy Strut for the first time, I immediately noticed the different atmosphere. The sign at the entrance said, "Seat yourself if you want to eat here!" As I looked around, I saw some fat guy in the corner really jamming on an electric guitar. (I later learned that was Big D himself.) After much deliberation I decided to sit at the bar. Here, I ordered my sandwich and sat next to the cook after he made it. We watched cartoons for about an hour. Hy's Deli, on the other hand, had a sign that read "Please feel free to seat yourself" in the entrance. Next, I noticed everyone staring at me. There were ten or twelv...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited Essay

ITC Limited which previously stood for Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited is an Indian conglomerate with a turnover of US $ 4.75 billion. It ranks third in pre-tax profit among India’s private sector corporations. The company has its registered office in Kolkata. The company is currently headed by Yogesh Chander Deveshwar. It employs over 20,000 people at more than 60 locations across India and is listed on Forbes 2000. The Training Centre of the company is in Munger, Bihar. ITC is also known as â€Å"Chatkal† (especially in Munger). ITC Limited or ITC is an Indian conglomerate. Its diversified business includes five segments: Fast Moving Consumer Goods, Hotels, Paperboards, Paper & Packaging and Agri Business. â€Å"A country’s brands are a reflection of its competitive strengths and a manifestation of its innovation and intellectual capacity. I strongly believe that a country’s economic capacity is significantly enriched when its institutions build and own internationally competitive brands. Winning brands serve as market anchors to support the competitiveness of the entire value chains of which they are a part. Strong domestic brands create much larger value since they create, capture and retain value within the country. ITC takes justifiable pride in creating world-class Indian brands that have demonstrated immense vitality in the global Indian market place.† Y C Deveshwar, Chairman, ITC Limited ITC’s Branded Packaged Foods business is one of the fastest growing foods businesses in India, driven by the market standing and consumer franchise of its seven popular brands – Aashirvaad, Sunfeast, Bingo!, Kitchens of India, mint-o, Candyman and Yippee! Over the past 5 years, the business has grown at an impressive rate faster than that of the industry. Given India’s rapid economic growth and rising disposable incomes, ITC’s Branded Packaged Foods business is well-positioned to ride this boom to secure robust, long-term growth. The business continues to invest in every aspect of manufacturing, distribution and marketing to ensure that it can leverage emerging opportunities and fulfill its aspiration of being the most trusted provider of Branded Packaged Foods in the country. HISTORY ITC was incorporated on August 24, 1910 under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. As the Company’s ownership progressively Indianised, the name of the Company was changed from Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited to India Tobacco Company Limited in 1970 and then to I.T.C. Limited in 1974. In recognition of the Company’s multi-business portfolio encompassing a wide range of businesses – Fast Moving Consumer Goods comprising Foods, Personal Care, Cigarettes and Cigars, Branded Apparel, Education and Stationery Products, Incense Sticks and Safety Matches, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business and Information Technology – the full stops in the Company’s name were removed effective September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened Limited, ‘where ‘ITC’ is today no longer an acronym or an initialized form. A Modest Beginning The Company’s beginnings were humble. A leased office on Radha Bazaar Lane, Kolkata, was the centre of the Company’s existence. The Company celebrated its 16th birthday on August 24, 1926, by purchasing the plot of land situated at 37, Chowringhee, (now renamed J.L. Nehru Road) Kolkata, for the sum of Rs 310,000. This decision of the Company was historic in more ways than one. It was to mark the beginning of a long and eventful journey into India’s future. The Company’s headquarter building, ‘Virginia House’, which came up on that plot of land two years later, would go on to become one of Kolkata’s most venerated landmarks. 1925: Packaging and Printing: Backward Integration Though the first six decades of the Company’s existence were primarily devoted to the growth and consolidation of the Cigarettes and Leaf Tobacco businesses, ITC’s Packaging & Printing Business was set up in 1925 as a strategic backward integration for ITC’s Cigarettes business. It is today India’s most sophisticated packaging house. 1975: Entry into the Hospitality Sector – A ‘Welcome’ Move The Seventies witnessed the beginnings of a corporate transformation that would usher in momentous changes in the life of the Company. In 1975, the Company launched its Hotels business with the acquisition of a hotel in Chennai which was rechristened ‘ITC-Welcomgroup Hotel Chola’ (now renamed My Fortune, Chennai). The objective of ITC’s entry into the hotels business was rooted in the concept of creating value for the nation. ITC chose the Hotels business for its potential to earn high levels of foreign exchange, create tourism infrastructure and generate large scale direct and indirect employment. Since then ITC’s Hotels business has grown to occupy a position of leadership, with over 100 owned and managed properties spread across India under four brands namely, ITC Hotels – Luxury Collection, WelcomHotels, Fortune Hotels and WelcomHeritage. ITC Hotels recently took its first step toward international expansion with an upcoming super premium luxury hotel in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In addition, ITC Hotels also recently tied up with RP Group Hotels & Resorts to manage 5 hotels in Dubai and India under ITC Hotels’ 5-star ‘WelcomHotel’ brand and the mid-market to upscale ‘Fortune’ brand. 1979: Paperboards & Specialty Papers – Development of a Backward Area In 1979, ITC entered the Paperboards business by promoting ITC Bhadrachalam Paperboards Limited. Bhadrachalam Paperboards amalgamated with the Company effective March 13, 2002 and became a Division of the Company, Bhadrachalam Paperboards Division. In November 2002, this division merged with the Company’s Tribeni Tissues Division to form the Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division. ITC’s paperboards’ technology, productivity, quality and manufacturing processes are comparable to the best in the world. It has also made an immense contribution to the development of Sarapaka, an economically backward area in the state of Andhra Pradesh. It is directly involved in education, environmental protection and community development. In 2004, ITC acquired the paperboard manufacturing facility of BILT Industrial Packaging Co. Ltd (BIPCO), near Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. The Kovai Unit allows ITC to improve customer service with reduced lead time and a wider product range. 1985: Nepal Subsidiary – First Steps beyond National Borders In 1985, ITC set up Surya Tobacco Co. in Nepal as an Indo-Nepal and British joint venture. In August 2002, Surya Tobacco became a subsidiary of ITC Limited and its name was changed to Surya Nepal Private Limited (Surya Nepal). In 2004, the company diversified into manufacturing and exports of garments. 1990: Paperboards & Specialty Papers – Consolidation and Expansion In 1990, ITC acquired Tribeni Tissues Limited, a Specialty paper manufacturing company and a major supplier of tissue paper to the cigarette industry. The merged entity was named the Tribeni Tissues Division (TTD). To harness strategic and operational synergies, TTD was merged with the Bhadrachalam Paperboards Division to form the Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division in November 2002. 1990: Agri Business – Strengthening Farmer Linkages Also in 1990, leveraging its agri-sourcing competency, ITC set up the Agri Business Division for export of agri-commodities. The Division is today one of India’s largest exporters. ITC’s unique and now widely acknowledged e-Choupal initiative began in 2000 with soya farmers in Madhya Pradesh. Now it extends to 10 states covering over 4 million farmers. Also, through the ‘Choupal Pradarshan Khet’ initiative, the agri services vertical has been focusing on improving productivity of crops while deepening the relationship with the farming community. 2002: Education & Stationery Products – Offering the Greenest products ITC launched line of premium range of notebooks under brand Paperkraft in 2002. To augment its offering and to reach a wider student population, the Classmate range of notebooks was launched in 2003. Classmate over the years has grown to become India’s largest notebook brand and has also increased its portfolio to occupy a greater share of the school bag. Years 2007- 2009 saw the launch of Practical Books, Drawing Books, Geometry Boxes, Pens and Pencils under the ‘Classmate’ brand. In 2008, ITC positioned the business as the Education and Stationery Products Business and launched India’s first environment friendly premium business paper under the ‘Paperkraft’ Brand. ‘Paperkraft’ offers a diverse portfolio in the premium executive stationery and office consumables segment. In 2010, Colour Crew was launched as a new brand of art stationery. 2000: Lifestyle Retailing – Premium Offerings ITC also entered the Lifestyle Retailing business with the Wills Sport range of international quality relaxed wear for men and women in 2000. The Wills Lifestyle chain of exclusive stores later expanded its range to include Wills Classic formal wear (2002) and Wills Clublife evening wear (2003). ITC also initiated a foray into the popular segment with its men’s wear brand, John Players, in 2002. In 2006, Wills Lifestyle became title partner of the country’s most premier fashion event – Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week – that has gained recognition from buyers and retailers as the single largest B-2-B platform for the Fashion Design industry. To mark the occasion, ITC launched a special ‘Wills Signature’, taking the event forward to consumers. 2000: Information Technology – Business Friendly Solutions In 2000, ITC spun off its information technology business into a wholly owned subsidiary, ITC Infotech India Limited, to more aggressively pursue emerging opportunities in this area. Today ITC Infotech is one of India’s fastest growing global IT and IT-enabled services companies and has established itself as a key player in offshore outsourcing, providing outsourced IT solutions and services to leading global customers across key focus verticals – Banking Financial Services & Insurance (BFSI), Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG), Retail, Manufacturing, Engineering Services, Media & Entertainment, Travel, Hospitality, Life Sciences and Transportation & Logistics. 2001: Branded Packaged Foods – Delighting Millions of Households ITC’s foray into the Foods business is an outstanding example of successfully blending multiple internal competencies to create a new driver of business growth. It began in August 2001 with the introduction of’Kitchens of India’ ready-to-eat Indian gourmet dishes. In 2002, ITC entered the confectionery and staples segments with the launch of the brands mint-o and Candyman confectionery and Aashirvaad atta (wheat flour). 2003 witnessed the introduction of Sunfeast as the Company entered the biscuits segment. ITC entered the fast growing branded snacks category with Bingo! in 2007. In 2010, ITC launched Sunfeast Yippee! to enter the Indian instant noodles market. In just over a decade, the Foods business has grown to a significant size under seven distinctive brands, with an enviable distribution reach, a rapidly growing market share and a solid market standing. 2002: Agarbattis & Safety Matches – Supporting the Small and Cottage Sector In 2002, ITC’s philosophy of contributing to enhancing the competitiveness of the entire value chain found yet another expression in the Safety Matches initiative. ITC now markets popular safety matches brands like iKno,Mangaldeep and Aim. ITC’s foray into the marketing of Agarbattis (incense sticks) in 2003 marked the manifestation of its partnership with the cottage sector. Mangaldeep is a highly established national brand and is available across a range of fragrances like Rose, Jasmine, Bouquet, Sandalwood and ‘Fragrance of Temple’. 2005: Personal Care Products – Expert Solutions for Discerning Consumers ITC entered the Personal Care Business in 2005. In eight years, the Personal Care portfolio has grown under’Essenza Di Wills’, ‘Fiama Di Wills’, ‘Vivel’ and ‘Superia’ brands which have received encouraging consumer response and have been progressively extended nationally. In May 2013, the business expanded its product portfolio with the launch of Engage – one of India’s first range of ‘couple deodorants’ 2010: Expanding the Tobacco Portfolio In 2010, ITC launched its handrolled cigar, Armenteros, in the Indian market. Armenteros cigars are available exclusively at tobacco selling outlets in select hotels, fine dining restaurants and exclusive clubs. PRODUCTS & SERVICES *FAST MOVING CONSUMER GOODS: 1) CIGARETTES: ITC is the market leader in cigarettes in India. With its wide range of invaluable brands, ITC has a leadership position in every segment of the market. ITC’s highly popular portfolio of brands includes Insignia, India Kings, Lucky Strike, Classic, Gold Flake, Navy Cut, Players, Scissors, Capstan, Berkeley, Bristol, Flake, Silk Cut, Duke & Royal. The Company has been able to consolidate its leadership position with single minded focus on continuous value creation for consumers through significant investments in creating & bringing to market innovative product designs, maintaining consistent & superior quality, state-of-the-art manufacturing technology, & superior marketing and distribution. With consumers & consumer insights driving strategy, ITC has been able to fortify market standing in the long-term, by developing & delivering contemporary offers relevant to the changing attitudes & aspirations of the constantly evolving consumer. ITC’s pursuit of international competitiveness is reflected in its initiatives in overseas markets. In the extremely competitive US market, ITC offers high-quality, value-priced cigarettes and Roll-your-own solutions. In West Asia, ITC has become a key player in the GCC markets through its export operations. ITC’s cigarettes are manufactured in state-of-the-art factories at Bengaluru, Munger, Saharanpur, Kolkata and Pune, with cutting-edge technology & excellent work practices benchmarked to the best globally. An efficient supply-chain & distribution network reaches India’s popular brands across the length & breadth of the country. 2) FOODS: TC made its entry into the branded & packaged Foods business in August 2001 with the launch of the Kitchens of India brand. A more broad-based entry has been made since June 2002 with brand launches in the Confectionery, Staples and Snack Foods segments. The Foods business is today represented in 4 categories in the market. These are: * Ready to Eat Foods * Staples * Confectionery * Snack Foods In order to assure consumers of the highest standards of food safety and hygiene, ITC is engaged in assisting outsourced manufacturers in implementing world-class hygiene standards through HACCP certification. The unwavering commitment to internationally benchmarked quality standards enabled ITC to rapidly gain market standing in all its 6 brands: * Kitchens of India * Aashirvaad * Sunfeast * Mint-o *Candyman * Bingo! *Yippee! 2) INCENSE STICKS: As part of ITC’s business strategy of creating multiple drivers of growth in the FMCG sector, the Company commenced marketing Agarbattis (Incense Sticks) sourced from small-scale and cottage units in 2003. This Business leverages the core strengths of ITC in nation-wide distribution and marketing, brand building, supply chain management, manufacture of high quality paperboards and the creation of innovative packaging solutions to offer Indian consumers high quality Agarbattis. With its participation in the business, ITC aims to enhance the competitiveness of the small-scale and cottage units through its complementary R&D based product development and strengths in trade marketing and distribution. The Business continues to work on various exciting new offerings to the consumers and is planning to launch them in the near future. In line with ITC’s Triple Bottom Line philosophy of every business contributing to the nation’s economic, environmental and social capital, Mangaldeep agarbattis are manufactured by small scale and cottage units, providing livelihood opportunities for more than 14,000 people. Mangaldeep Agarbatti is manufactured at various centres & 5 of the manufacturing units are ISO 9000 certified. Mangaldeep ASHA (Assistance in Social Habilitation through Agarbattis) is an ITC initiative to improve the quality of raw agarbatti production and provide better livelihood for women rollers. ITC has also extended support to NGOs in states and like Bihar, Tripura, Tamil Nadu, who are setting up agarbatti units, training village women in rolling agarbattis and employing them in these units. ITC has signed a MoU with ORMAS (Orissa Rural Development & Marketing Society), an autonomous body under the Pachayat Raj in Odisha. This initiative provides technical training to rural women & provides employment opportunities to over 4000 rural women†¦ 3) STATIONERY: ITC made its entry to the education and stationery business with its Paperkraft brand in the premium segment in 2002; and later expanded into the popular segment with its Classmate brand in 2003. By 2007, Classmate became the largest Notebook brand in the country. Together, Classmate and Paperkraft offer a range of products in the Education & Stationery space to the discerning consumer, providing unrivalled value in terms of product & price. Classmate and Paperkraft have become a natural extension of the consumer. Meticulous understanding of consumer needs helped creating a relevant and comprehensive portfolio satisfying the needs of different sets of consumers. ITC is the manufacturer of India’s first Ozone treated environment friendly Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) pulp, paper and paperboard. It blends its knowledge of image processing, printing and conversion garnered from Packaging & Printing Business with its brand building and trade marketing & distribution strengths resi dent in its FMCG business to offer superior value products to consumers. Paperkraft Business paper and the papers used in Classmate and Paperkraft notebooks are superior in quality and environment-friendly. Other offerings available in education and Stationery range are safe and certified non-toxic. 4) LIFESTYLE APPAREL: ITC’s Lifestyle Retailing Business Division has established a nationwide retailing presence through its Wills Lifestyle chain of exclusive specialty stores. Wills Lifestyle, the fashion destination, offers a tempting choice of Wills Classic work wear, Wills Sport relaxed wear, Wills Club life evening wear, fashion accessories and Essenza Di Wills – an exclusive range of fine fragrances and bath & body care products and Fiama Di Wills – a range of premium shampoos and shower gels. Wills Lifestyle has also introduced Wills Signature designer wear, designed by the leading designers of the country. Wills Classic Wills Classic work wear was launched in November 2002, providing the premium consumer a distinct product offering and a unique brand positioning. John Players ITC forayed into the youth fashion segment with the launch of In December 2002 and John Players is committed to be the No. 1 fashion brand for the youth. .* HOTELS: ITC Welcome group Hotels, Palaces and Resorts is India’s second largest hotel chain with over 80 hotels. Based out of Hotels Division Headquarters at the ITC Green Centre in Gurgaon, ITC Welcome group is also the exclusive franchisee of The Luxury Collection brand of Starwood Hotels and Resorts in India. ITC entered the hotels business in 1975 with the acquisition of a hotel in Chennai, which was then rechristened ITC Chola. Since then the ITC-Welcomgroup brand has become synonymous with Indian hospitality with over 90 hotels in 77 destinations. * PAPERBOARDS & SPECIALITY PAPERS: ITC Bhadrachalam Paperboards Limited & ITC Tribeni Tissues Division are now under one roof – Paper Boards and Specialty Papers Division. There are 4 Units under one umbrella – Bhadrachalam, Tribeni, Bollarum and Kovai. ITC’s Packaging & Printing Business is the country’s largest convertor of paper board into packaging. It converts over 50,000 tonnes of paper and paperboard per annum into a variety of value-added packaging solutions for the food & beverage, personal products, cigarette, liquor, cellular phone and IT packaging industries. It has also entered the Flexibles and Corrugated Cartons business. *AGRI-BUSINESS: E-Choupal The unique e-Choupal model creates a significant two-way multi-dimensional channel which can efficiently carry products and services into and out of rural India, whilere covering the associated costs through agri-sourcing led efficiencies. This initiative now comprises about 6500 installations covering nearly 40,000 villages and serving over 4million farmers. Leaf Tobacco ITC is the largest buyer, processor and exporter of leaf tobaccos in India – creating a global benchmark as the single largest integrated source of quality tobaccos. Serving customers in 50 countries across more than 70 destinations, ITC co-creates and delivers value at every stage of the leaf tobacco value chain. Corporate strategies ITC is a board-managed professional company, committed to creating enduring value for the shareholder and for the nation. It has a rich organizational culture rooted in its core values of respect for people and belief in empowerment. Its philosophy of all-round value creation is backed by strong corporate governance policies and systems. ITC’s corporate strategies are: Create multiple drivers of growth by developing a portfolio of world class businesses that best matches organizational capability with opportunities in domestic and export markets. Continue to focus on the chosen portfolio of FMCG, Hotels, Paper, Paperboards & Packaging, Agri Business and Information Technology. Benchmark the health of each business comprehensively across the criteria of Market Standing, Profitability and Internal Vitality. Ensure that each of its businesses is world class and internationally competitive. Enhance the competitive power of the portfolio through synergies derived by blending the diverse skills and capabilities residing in ITC are various businesses. Create distributed leadership within the organization by nurturing talented and focused top management teams for each of the businesses. Continuously strengthen and refine Corporate Governance processes and systems to catalyze the entrepreneurial energies of management by striking the golden balance between executive freedom and the need for effective control and accountability. MARKETING STRATEGIES ITC pricing strategy: The pricing of the ITC food division depends upon the Customers’ demand schedule, the cost function and the competitors’ price. The pricing of the company is such that it caters to the need of all income groups of people but special provision has been kept for Low and middle income group, and their pricing are competitive with respect to other players like Britannia, Parle and Brisk farm. The company follows the Going rate pricing that is the price of the product depends upon the competitors price. The firm chooses pricing more or less the same as Market leader. ITC Promotional activities A particular budget is allocated for the promotion of the products, the local promotion scheme is decided by the Area Sales manages, it give its suggestion to the District office and that is forwarded to the Head Quarter in Kolkata. In another promotional scheme for Biscuits a particular number of cases is given freely to the distributors according to the amount of sale they make, this was a drop down promotion I.e. of the number of free cases that a particular distributors gets, off them ascertain part is reserved for the retailers and customer if they buy a certain level of biscuit quantity. ITC Distribution Buoyed by a strong distribution network ITC is likely to retain its market share in the cigarettes business; the ban on advertisements is likely to work in favor of ITC thanks to the recall factor. The company’s reliable distribution network also ensures superior inventory turnover than its peers. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SOCIAL PERFORMANCE As a Company that continuously strives to be ‘Citizen First’, ITC attaches critical importance to its responsibility to contribute to the ‘Triple Bottom Line’, namely the augmentation of economic, ecological and social capital. This commitment finds expression in the Company’s sustainable development philosophy, which recognizes the need to not only preserve but also enrich precious environmental resources. ITC’s social development initiatives harmonize the Company’s endeavour to create shareholder value with making a substantial contribution to society. In partnership with rural communities, ITC supports over 5 million livelihoods in India. The thrust of the Company’s social sector investment is in four areas: (a) Web-enablement of the Indian farmer through the e-Choupal initiative; (b) Natural resource management, which includes wasteland, watershed and agriculture development; (c) Sustainable livelihood creation, comprising gen etic improvement in livestock productivity and women’s economic empowerment; and (d) Community development, with focus on primary education and health & sanitation. MILESTONES 4 million farmers empowered, 6,500 e – Choupals installed 1,45,000 hectares greened, generating 65.67 million person – days of employment 1,21,000 hectares brought under soil and moisture conservation 18,700 women members, 1,494 self – help groups 314 Cattle Development Centers, Animal husbandry services provided to 4,90,000 animals 3,00,000 children covered through 2,845 Supplementary Learning systems 1) Initiatives taken- Let’s put India first ITC is committed to a national agenda of raising agricultural productivity and making the rural economy more socially inclusive. ITC believes that the urgency and scale of these tasks make market linked solutions and innovations more effective and sustainable than capital intensive approaches. 2) Social & farm Forestry ITC has helped to bring nearly 13,000 hectares of wasteland under social forestry benefiting more than 16,000 poor households in 466 villages. ITC’s social forestry programme simultaneously addresses the livelihood problems of marginal farmers and the ecological imperative of regenerating biomass and nurturing depleted soils. 3) Watershed Development ITC’s watershed initiatives have led to an improvement in soil and moisture regimes – there is more land under irrigation, water tables have risen and farmers can harvest more than one crop, making it possible to live off the land round the year. 4) Agricultural Development ITC offers facilitation to farmers to form agri-business societies, pool knowledge and resources, improve productivity and quality, and reach out beyond local markets to sell at better margins. 5) Women Empowerment The confidence and skills generated among women by forming credit groups and managing businesses become assets to their communities. 6) Livestock Development The milk marketing co-operatives represent exemplary change in rural enterprise, away from dependence on agriculture and local markets. 7) Primary Education School going becomes an empowering process for the child and the community. The awareness of entitlements like education and health grows, along with a sense of the community’s responsibility. INVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE Economic progress and long-term business sustainability are today threatened by the real and adverse consequences of global warming and accelerated climate change. ITC has responded to the challenges emerging from the threat of global warming by aligning its corporate strategy with national priorities. Accordingly, in line with the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), they have adopted strategies to address climate change-related impacts and developed appropriate mitigation and adaptation plans. Their unique approach has been to integrate these plans with their business strategies and not as separate activities. Their Strategies Include 1. Identifying and evaluating climate change risks for each business. 2. Reducing the environmental impact of our processes, products and services and working towards creating a positive environmental footprint. 3. Adopting a low carbon growth path through reduction in specific energy consumption and enhanced use of renewable energy sources. 4. Enlarging our carbon positive footprint through increased carbon sequestration by expanding forestry projects in wastelands. 5. Reducing specific freshwater intake and augmenting rainwater harvesting activities both on-site and off-site at watershed catchment areas. 6. Working towards minimising waste generation, maximising its reuse and recycling and using external post-consumer waste as raw material in our Units. 7. Creating sustainable livelihoods and promoting sustainable agricultural practices. Global honors ITC constantly endeavors to benchmark its products, services and processes to global standards. The Company’s pursuit of excellence has earned it national and international honors. ITC is one of the eight Indian companies to figure in Forbes A-List for 2004, featuring 400 of â€Å"the world’s best big companies†. Forbes has also named ITC among Asia’s ‘Fab 50’ and the World’s Most Reputable Companies. ITC has several firsts to its credit: ITC is the first from India and among the first 10 companies in the world to publish its Sustainability Report in compliance (at the highest A+ level) with the latest G3 guidelines of the Netherlands-based Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), a UN-backed, multistakeholder international initiative to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. ITC is the first Indian company and the second in the world to win the prestigious Development Gateway Award. It won the $100,000 Award for the year 2005 for its trailblazing ITC e-Choupal initiative which has achieved the scale of a movement in rural India. The Development Gateway Award recognizes ITC’s e-Choupal as the most exemplary contribution in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for development during the last 10 years. ITC e-Choupal won the Award for the importance of its contribution to development priorities like poverty reduction, its scale and replicability, sustainability and transparency. ITC has won the inaugural ‘World Business Award’, the worldwide business award recognizing companies who have made significant efforts to create sustainable livelihood opportunities and enduring wealth in developing countries. The award has been instituted jointly by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the HRH Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum (IBLF). ITC is the first Corporate to receive the Annual FICCI Outstanding Vision Corporate Triple Impact Award in 2007 for its invaluable contribution to the triple bottom line benchmarks of building economic, social and natural capital for the nation. ITC has won the Golden Peacock Awards for ‘Corporate Social Responsibility (Asia)’ in 2007, the Award for ‘CSR in Emerging Economies 2005’ and ‘Excellence in Corporate Governance’ in the same year. These Awards have been instituted by the Institute of Directors, New Delhi, in association with the World Council for Corporate Governance and Centre for Corporate Governance. ITC Hotel Gardenia, Bangalore is the first Indian Hotel and world’s largest, to get the LEED Platinum rating – the highest green building certification globally.

Friday, August 16, 2019

The Positive Effects of the Internet

Positive effects of the internet Internet, as most of us know, is a large network of networks, which communicate with each other by means of data packets. Internet is regarded as the largest information base. Today, Internet has become an integral part of our daily lives. We depend on the Internet to update ourselves about current news and rely on the communication platform it offers to get in touch with our near ones. The information from all around the world is just a click away, thanks to the Internet. Internet has surely affected the society positively. With the onset of the Internet, access to information has become easy.Internet has served being an efficient and organized storage of information. Internet search engines are the best information retrieval systems that are functional over the Internet. Typing in a simple search query to a search engine fetches you thousands of search results. Moreover, the ranking strategies adopted by the search engines ensure that the most relev ant results are delivered to you on priority. The search engines crawl over all the information that seems relevant to your search query. They retrieve the most relevant results in top order, thus helping you fetch the required information with great ease.Information is truly a click away! The Internet provides some of the most effective means of communication. Emails and instant messages have made online communication possible. Social networking and blogging websites and online discussion forums have proved being popular platforms of expression. People in different parts of the world can collaborate over the Internet. They can exchange views, share information and work together over the Internet. It was the development of the Internet that made online education and distance learning possible.Professionals working in physically distant locations can collaborate their efforts, thanks to the Internet. Today, the Internet is a part of every sphere of life. Looking at the wide range of the positive effects of Internet, it is sure to rein in future too! Go through these basic Internet terms for a technical know-how of the world wide web. As with any new technology, everyone is always talking about the negative side effects of the internet and saying how it ruins real face to face relationship, fills our minds with filth and damages our eyes and melts our brains.As usual it’s the panic mongers whose voices are most heard in the media and it’s gotten to such a point that people begin to feel guilty when they boot up their computer. The same things were said about rock music when records were at their most popular, and about televisions when they were first invented. The fact of the matter remains however that we still use both music players and televisions and that the internet isn’t going anywhere either. The reason for this is that although all these things do have a few downsides (like anything), they also have a plethora of upsides.The positi ve effects of internet use far outweigh the negatives, whether you’re a child, a pensioner or a business man and to say otherwise is not only small minded but destructive. Before we get onto the positive effects of internet use, let’s start with these much touted negative side effects. The naysayers would have us believe that the internet prevents us from interacting on a face to face basis and destroys old fashioned pursuits of writing letters and speaking on the phone; people even meet their spouses online these days!With business and finance now handled online we’re also far too dependent on the internet and would be at a loss should it break down. With the internet in our pocket we’re now never ‘disconnected’ and are at our boss’ beck and call 24 hours a day. Our bank cards are also more susceptible than ever to fraud and theft†¦ And through all this we’re getting addicting and neglecting our real relationships, stuck i nside in a more and more hermit like existence.They also say that sitting in front of a computer prevents us from getting outside and basking in fresh air and instead gives us repetitive strain injuries, hunched over spines and square eyes. As though this wasn’t enough, when we are sat inside on the computer we’re mostly looking at filth as that’s what the internet is comprised of – and having so much temptation and porn at our finger tips can only be a bad thing. The temptation isn’t limited to porn though – we’re also surrounded by bad investments and all-to-easy online shops not to mention gambling sites.And it’s not just ourselves we affect online – we also damage industries by downloading free books and music and downloading pirated movies. The internet provides a hiding place for all the perverts and weirdoes to meet online and to talk about completely irresponsible and antisocial subjects in a way that they could never get away with online. Adverts for penis enlargement, Viagra and Bestiality pop up every two minutes and find their way into our inboxes. Never mind the positive effects of internet use; all this is something you’re willing to expose your children to?The truth of the matter though is that all these things are simply symptoms of our own psyche as a race and if you look at them slightly differently you’ll see that many of these ‘downsides’ actually represent progress and the positive effects of internet use. Firstly, the accusation that the internet ruins ‘real life’ relationships is a bit of a misnomer and perhaps what people are forgetting here is that those people at the other ends of e-mails and on social networking sites actually are ‘real life’ people too.In the case of sites such as Facebook and others then, you’re actually more in contact with people than you would be otherwise and in fact need never lose contact with anyone ever again. Romantic relationships also benefit from the internet and if you ask any long-distance couple they’ll very easily be able to reel you off some positive effects of internet use as it allows them to talk every night without wracking up a ridiculously long phone bill on Skype or MSN, and how it even allows them to see each other on the webcam.And for those who actually meet online†¦ so what? For those who lack the social skills or the opportunity to meet people in more traditional ways (and what’s so elegant about snogging someone drunkenly in a club anyway? ), it can be a great way to meet someone that they might not otherwise. Taking away the ‘physical’ element to begin with may even make the relationship less shallow and get both parties to visit new and exotic locations. There are also positive effects of internet usage in business.While it’s true that office workers are now spending less and less time ‘relaxingà ¢â‚¬â„¢ with no internet connection and so no capacity to work; it also means that they have to take fewer trips into the office and means that some people can now work entirely from home and set up their own businesses. And by ‘working from home’ what we really mean, again thanks to the internet, is working from anywhere – while travelling, in a pub or while chilling in the hot tub. It also means fewer business trips abroad when people can make video conferences far more easily which means more time with the family and less damage to the environment.Who’d have thought being eco-friendly would be one of the positive effects of internet use? While many technologies have taken jobs away from the public, the internet has opened up a wealth of opportunities and heralded an age where anyone can be published and anyone can be an entrepreneur. Even if you only sell a few old items on e-bay; anyone can make money online. With the ‘One Child One Laptopâ€℠¢ scheme that’s heading to Africa, and the large-scale attempts to provide the continent with a secure internet connection this could see one of the largest continents joining us online to share their views and earn themselves some money.This will give them access to all the education they could need as well as the resources they’d need to make the most of that. Many of them could see themselves working their way out of poverty – and online they can expect the same wages as other continents as its faceless nature eradicates discrimination. One of the positive effects of internet use then is that it could help some people in escaping from the poverty trap. And yes more of our personal information is now available online and to an extent that does leave us vulnerable.At the same time however, bank robberies are a thing of the past and most of us no longer carry more than ? 20 on us at a time. If we are careful and follow the guidelines advised by the banks and onl ine businesses, then our data should be safer than it was before – it’s shredding the hard copies you need to be careful of. And the internet is full of filth. Well okay that’s quite true, but to be fair that’s not all it’s filled with either. Apart from anything else the internet is filled with knowledge and information. If you’re friend or your child started spending lots of time in the library you’d be impressed right?Well the internet is essentially the largest library of all, and even if you don’t aim to use it for learning purposes it’s pretty hard to go online without learning something. The news for instance is flashed on most search engines and e-mail providers’ home pages and it’s far to tempting not to use Wikipedia as a means to settle debates and disagreements. Wikipedia and other sites in general in fact provide almost everything you could ever need to know right at your finger tips. Furthermo re, simply interacting with people from other cultures is bound to help make you more cultured and worldly.Just getting to see other people’s points of view on forums and in chat rooms (and sharing their point of view is something people are only too pleased to do online, just check out YouTube for proof) will make you more open minded and a more reasoned critic. Improve your knowledge and informing your points of view are two of the most important positive effects of internet use. As for all that temptation†¦ Well the amount of porn on the internet really only reflects how sex-obsessed we are as a culture and blaming the internet isn’t going to achieve anything.If someone really wants to access porn they’ll find a way, and surely it’s better that they vent their sexual frustration in a safe environment and for free? And anyway, masturbation in itself is completely natural and not unhealthy so there’s not really anything to be worried about. S ure there’s some rather extreme stuff on there, but that will always exist internet or no, and if you want to prevent you kids from seeing it you just need to set up a filter. And as for those ‘all too easy’ online shops, most of them provide significant discounts on their items meaning that you can afford to be a bit more materialistic.In doing so you’re also putting money back into the economy, so again what many people view as a bad thing is actually one of the positive effects of internet use. Destroying industry and providing a place for these deviant ‘subcultures’ to converse? Those too are perhaps the most positive effects of internet use. These are the things that promise to change the way politics and business work forever and potentially usher in a new age of supreme democracy and resources. Granted, there are some sub groups online that we’d probably rather there weren’t, but at least if they’re online they can talk to each other and leave us alone.Other ‘subcultures’ however simply reflect different ways of thinking – and the internet gives them an open forum to freely express themselves, something that everyone has a right to do. The anonymity and freedom that the internet gives us can also be a good thing as well as bad. On the one hand it does allow people to get away with things they would otherwise, and to lie about their identity. On the other hand however it also further oils the cogs of democracy by giving people an opportunity to speak freely without fear of retribution and gives everyone a voice.It also gives people the opportunity to ‘try out’ different personas and shed their social anxiety which can be a liberating experience. On the internet racism is also impossible when anonymity is observed – it is a place where people are judged only on the quality of their contributions. This expression then gives a voice to those who wouldnâ€⠄¢t be heard otherwise, and petitioning can take part on a global level where people are united by cause rather than geographical location.Soon governments may take advantage of this open forum and start listening more closely; an age may exist where we all get a say on every decision that affects us, where we act as ‘one mind’ in decisions that affect the general public, but as completely autonomous and free individuals the rest of the time. And as for the free exchange of movies, books and CDs – well many companies and artists have found that by freely distributing their material they actually make much more money by generating a larger following. Information is a resource that will never run dry and so to charge for it could be seen as immoral.Particularly as the internet allows all of us to create and market our own work. In time then, most things will be free and money will mostly be made via advertising sponsorship. So in conclusion, the positive effects of internet use have only just begun, and if we continue as we are and ignore the pessimistic doom-mongers then it won’t be long before we’ve heralded in a new age where true democracy and the free flow of information and art are commonplace. With this in mind, who really cares if it’s full of porn?