Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Cortes Conquers the Aztecs: Spanish Conquest or Indian Civil War Essay

The Spanish conquests of Montezuma and the Aztecs were both a Spanish conquest as well as an Indian civil war. The thing that ties them both together is the Conquistador Hernan Cortes. You could argue for both sides as to which played a more significant part in the fall of the Aztecs, however, I feel they both played an equal role in the defeat of the Aztecs and the fall of Tenochititlan to the Spaniards. When Cortes first came to Mexico, he did not know the language spoken by the Indian tribes. He was fortunate enough to have two interpreters; Aguilar, a shipwrecked Spaniard who had learned the Maya language, and Malinche. Malinche was a young maiden â€Å"given† to Cortes as an offering. Between her and Aguilar, Cortes was able to become familiar with the way the Aztecs lived, thought, and fought. He used this tactic to aid in expedition and to guard against any attacks. By far, one of the biggest downfalls of Montezuma and the Aztecs was the role of the God Quetzalcoatl. The majority of the Aztecs’ lives and beliefs was centered on their Gods. One of their biggest beliefs was of the God Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent. Montezuma believed that Cortes was the human version of Quetzalcoatl. The legend of Quetzalcoatl depicted a bearded, white God who looked similar to Cortes. Quetzalcoatl was prominent during the Toltec rule and had supposedly left the valley because he was unhappy with the way things were. The Aztecs believed he was expected to return and bring back good times and good fortune. Cortes took advantage of their beliefs and immersed himself into the Aztecs lives. Against the advice of his royal family, Montezuma welcomed Cortes and the Spaniards with open arms. They wanted Montezuma to kill the foreigners. The Aztecs tried giving the Spaniards gold and other riches to get them to leave their city. This only fueled their desire and ambitions for more, and they refused to leave. The more they gave, the more the Spaniards wanted. Cortes made Montezuma a prisoner of his own city, which led to an uprising by the Aztecs known as â€Å"La Noche Triste†, or The Sad Night. Many lives were lost on both sides. Many other factors contributed to Cortes’ victory over the Aztecs. His soldiers had far more superior weapons and they had horses. The Aztecs were very afraid of the horses because they had never seen anything like them before. Disease also played a huge part in the defeat of the Aztecs. The Spanish brought ailments that the Aztecs had no immunities for. Three-fourths died from either violence or diseases such as small-pox and the measles in just the first century of the conquests. The Aztecs’ tactics of war were quite different from those of the Spaniards, and this was also a point in the Spaniards’ favor. The Spaniards fought to kill. The Aztecs did not. The Aztecs fought to capture and get prisoners so they could later use them as human sacrifices to their Gods. In fact, Cortes himself was captured several times but was re-captured by his men and rescued. The most important factor by far in the defeat of the Aztecs by Cortes, according to some historians, is the help he received from the other suppressed Indian tribes in the area. This is why I believe one could view this as not only a Spanish conquest, but also as an Indian civil war. These other Indian tribes chose to help Cortes fight because they felt they would benefit greatly from the defeat of the Aztecs. They were tired of living under the Aztecs’ rule and saw Cortes as a type of hero, or liberator. They were more than happy to help wage a war against the Aztecs if it meant they could have better lives. After many deaths on both sides, The Aztec capitol fell in August of 1521. After capturing Tenochititlan, the Spaniards destroyed the city and on top of it built was is now present day Mexico City. I believe the preceding statements support my argument that the most important factors in the demise of Montezuma and the Aztecs were from the equal combination of having to deal with a Spanish conquest and an Indian civil war. Sources: Vigil, James Diego From Indians to Chicano Internet site, Then Again Info World History Chronology Project; www.thenagaininfo Matthew, Roy T. and F. DeWitt Platt Western Humanities Sullivan, Richard E., Dennis Sherman and John B. Harrison A Short history of Western Civilization Wood, Michael A Legacy- The Search for Ancient Cultures

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Definition of Culture and Its Importance Essay

Human beings are considered the highest form of animals, behaving passionately social as a group, using language and understanding, and doing teamwork and intergroup rivalry. Culture then relates to everything that humans have, think and do as a member of the social group. Both existent and make-believe, humans have stuff like tools, weapons, languages, laws, music, art, material resources, technologies and systems that when taken jointly will give details of the past and describes the present. On the other hand, when ideas, values, attitudes, beliefs and ideologies are taken as a group, help explains religious partiality, political directives, mores and extensive range of social associations. In addition, humans do or perform activities among specific group or society based on nationality, religion, ethnic boundaries and even occupation and academic, which later on collectively form the prescribed accepted behavior. (Holt, D. & Wigginton, K. 2002). In 1997, culture was described by Geert Hofstede in his book, Cultures and Organizations as the â€Å"software of the mind†. While individuals all have the identical â€Å"hardware†, which is the human brain, their â€Å"software† or â€Å"programming† is rather diverse. It is an identical experience when interrelating with somebody from a dissimilar culture – their language, suppositions, body language and movement, morals, and other facets of their culture will not be logical when relocated to another’s orientation structure. There are three fundamental logical reasoning when it comes to culture, namely: 1. Superiority of experience in the fine arts and humanities; 2. A combined blueprint of human knowledge, trust, and manners that relies upon the aptitude for figurative thinking and social knowledge; and 3. The set of divided outlooks, principles, purposes, and practices that distinguishes an association, society or group. According to Holt and Wigginton (2002), culture is a concept in the field of anthropology that concerns with shared structure of attitudes, way of life, ownership, traits, tradition and morals that describes group actions, which can be observed in a family, ethnic group, a business organization or a society. Authority, leadership, work attitudes and ethical practices on the part of management are influenced by this shared structure. Workers also are influenced by cultural antecedents on how they recognize and understand quality performance, work responsibilities, their function in decision-making and attitude in following orders from superior, as well as insight of human rights. The daily demeanor of workers in terms of punctuality, following rules on safety standards and personal hygiene are also affected. Slight differences between any two or more cultural groups can be observed, which therefore requires sensitivity to understand cultural differences, especially in manners of proper handling of business transactions. This way, when difficulties are encounter they will be solved readily with positive results. Understanding Differences in Culture The basic requirements for human survival are standard, which means for people to live they need water, food, clothing, housing and security. However, scarcity of these necessities compels human to creatively expand manners of acquiring them in order to give solutions to these survival problems. For simple societies, economic and social behavior consists of uncomplicated activities like looking for and cooking food, crafting clothes, building houses and rearing children. On the other hand, for developed societies, roles go beyond work and domestic related actions and extend to production and distribution of goods and services in order to sustain their big areas of responsibilities. It is essential to know that differences in culture would mean that different cultures have a diversity of styles in looking at things, ways of dressing and expressing individuality and/or goodness. Education, social rank, religion, individuality, belief composition, precedent experience, warmth shown in the domicile, and a countless of other factors will influence an individual’s manners and mores. A good deal of dissimilarities in culture has something to do with foodstuff preparation, music, and what each culture considers good manners. There are really cultural and philosophy disparities and it is fine to have an appreciation about a civilization’s way of life. Hofstede’s Model of Cultural Dimensions A Dutch researcher by the name of Geert Hofstede made a cross-cultural study of organizational behavior using managers from different countries to produce profile of cultural differences. This model is the most famous Hofstede’s Model composed of five dimensions namely power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity and long term orientation, which gives a comparative evaluation of group attributes. Said dimensions when used jointly, provide management sensible outlook regarding contradicting values and prototypes of manners among countries and groups. Power distance as a dimension relates to the degree of human inequalities. Hierarchical position and authority are the main focuses of a culture with high power distance. Less dominant member of the society acknowledge just being subordinates, who should always follow those who are leading. In societies with high power distance as exemplified by Japan, formal authority comes from the hierarchy where employees hardly ever go against a chain of command or subject into scrutiny the decisions of top management. The reverse is true with societies like the United States, Australia and New Zealand with low power distance, where both higher-ups and subordinates coordinate their decisions with one another and authority is not a big deal. However, for societies like Great Britain, Israel and Canada in particular, though they refuse to accept parity in social level, still they value the right of each person’s accomplishment (Holt, D. & Wigginton, K. , 2002). Individualism pertains to the degree of initiative in becoming independent against that of collective endeavor. Societies with high individualism placed importance on personal triumphs, advancement, escapades and self-sufficiency. This implies ignoring the extensive necessities of the society and making oneself and ones family the priority. Contradictory, culture with low degree of individualism supports family relationship, group synchronization, social order and devote to compromised ideas. Uncertainty avoidance (Holt, D. & Wigginton, K. , 2002) is the degree of open-mindedness for uncertainty and ambiguity, particularly to man’s search for Truth. It means the feeling of contentment and discontentment in shapeless circumstances which are unusual, unknown and unexpected. For majority of the societies, their religious beliefs stand as their manner of knowing the Absolute Truth. Japanese culture for instance, typifies a society that avoids uncertainty by creating detailed laws and standards in consonance with the norms of the society. There are also societies with dual philosophical beliefs that they do not consider any Absolute Truth and so they accept uncertainty within their organizations. Canadians, as an example do not prioritize ceremonies and company rites unlike the Japanese. The degree of motivational behavior based on value systems that are depicted in terms of being masculine or feminine is another dimension in the Hofstede’s Model termed masculinity. The focus of the said model is not on biological perspectives; however, the behavior is portrayed using gender. In countries with high masculinity, like Japan, men work and hold top positions in organization, while women stay at home to perform household chores and nurture children. In other words, there are distinct roles that women and men do in society. The priorities of people living in societies with high masculinity are achievement, wealth and expansion. Working professionals spent much of their time in work related activities and seldom take vacations to relieve their stress. When confronted with problems, the manners of settling these conflicts are done aggressively. On the opposite, countries that score low in masculinity give significance to their family, relationships and quality of life. There is equality in terms of positions for both men and women which could be observed in all aspects of their lives. Negotiation for people in societies with low masculinity is the best way to resolve misunderstandings and disagreements. They are also fond of working in flexible hours to give way for more vacations and relaxation. The fifth and newest cultural dimension is the long term orientation, founded on the teaching of Confucius on the East. Countries with high long term orientation can be described as being persistent, thrifty, having a sense of shame and organizing and observing relationship by status. On the other hand, those cultures with short term orientation have personal control and firmness, shield ones â€Å"face†, value ritual and give back to greetings, favors, and gifts.

A Brief and Simple Analysis of Chapter Two of Grendel

(Beginning in paragraph two of Chapter 2, and continuing throughout the chapter, Grendel describes how he used to be as a child. How does this description compare or contrast with the behavior of the humans when they are fully-grown? ) In chapter two of Grendel, John Gardner takes the readers into a deeper aspect of Grendel’s life. Most specifically, this chapter revolves around the childhood life of Grendel. Readers are able to access the mind of Grendel as a child, through a chapter that is almost entirely structured as a flashback to the situation that, arguably, may have transformed the typical ‘kid’ into the man-eating beast one was introduced to in Beowulf. However, Grendel isn’t to blame for his future actions, for his entire existence was tarnished when his young, impressionable mind was altered. Grendel’s innocence as a child was robbed, as with all children, when a new understanding of the world’s harshness was grasped. It almost seems, however, that Grendel’s behavior as a child is mirrored in the â€Å"fully-grown and adult† humans he despises so much. Throughout the chapter, Grendel seems to place himself on a risen, intellectual pedestal, with the humans he deems childish roaming blindly and stupidly hopeful far below. As observed through history, the Anglo Saxons were a war like people, with religious seafaring clans that pledged themselves to an invisible greater-power and who traveled far and wide in their seafaring explorations. These traits are identical to Grendel’s memories about his childhood, â€Å"I used to play games when I was young†¦. explored our far-flung underground world†¦.. an endless wargame of leaps†¦whispered plotting with invisible friends†¦childish games†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . When Grendel looks out to the humans, he can’t help but recognize his own childhood ways in their lifestyle. The humans’ endless praying and constant adventure is laughable in Grendel’s eyes because it reminds him of his own past existence before his hope and innocence were tarnished by the daunting reality of an unpromising life. Grendel’s attacks may not have been to hurt the humans for the heck of it, but rather, Grendel may have seen it as helping the humans into escaping an oblivious life, just as the humans did to Grendel when he was a child. It may be here that Grendel’s anger arises; Grendel absolutely knows his childhood was robbed from him, and it becomes his duty to enlighten the stupidly arrogant humans to recognize their true existence as well. The humans, as we all know well to much, seem to be stuck in an endlessly spinning cycle of pointlessness and Grendel is the third person outsider who wants to bring upon the harsh reality of life. On page seventeen, Grendel states â€Å"the shocking separateness from me in my mother’s eyes†¦. [I would] hurl myself at my mother†¦comforted, I would gradually ease back out into my games. †. Grendel’s feelings of uneasiness and misunderstandings are eased almost immediately with a hug from his mother, consoled with the love and connection of another. As an adult, Grendel almost despises such comfort, growing obviously angry with the immediate comfort of the humans with the passing of a clan member with the simple thoughts of unification and the extension of life. Grendel lost that sense of spirituality and companionship, and seems to deem it childish and almost unnecessary as an adult. We see Grendel as an independent being in Beowulf, and his murders are controlled in an area where companionship and joy are absolute and strong; the mead hall. It is more than a coincidence that Grendel chose to destroy the heart of the Anglo Saxon community, for he wished to destroy the hearts of the people. His continuation of destruction for what were the next twelve years were not because he enjoyed the killing and eating of the men (because it was stated that he didn’t) but because he realized that the hopefulness and unification of the community would not back down. Grendel’s own childish ways are exhibited here, for he continues his persistence until he can no longer. In Grendel’s eyes, Grendel is a monster who, almost as the Anglo Saxons believed, has grown wiser and more knowledgeable with the endless spinning of life he so ardently chooses to misinterpret. In chapter two, Grendel fixes himself far from the humans that he seems to understand so fully. In fact, Grendel himself is a child who lost his innocence and optimism so abruptly that he didn’t recognize it. Grendel is angry and jealous of the humans because he sees in them the traits that he possessed when his life posed meaning. Grendel became a nihilist, to some extent, because he decided to reject the life and being he was becoming. He instead chose to isolate himself so dangerously from his feelings that he had no other option but to inevitably give in to what he thought he should become. Upon the arrival of his death, Grendel was experiencing was seemed to be a type of mid-life crisis that developed from his childhood, or rather because of its absence.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Cyber-Activism and Democracy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Cyber-Activism and Democracy - Essay Example Both Republicans and Democrats agreed that majority of these young voters voted for Obama because of the contact campaign made to reach out the young voters through email and social networking sites. In fact it was as early as in February 2007 that President Nomination hopeful, Barak Obama launched his own social networking site (O'Hear, 2007). Therefore, it will be worthwhile to find out the kind of influence the cyber-activism had on the US democracy. Carr (2008) pointed out that the Obama campaign did not do anything innovative during the run up to the presidency. What it did was to tap the power of the social networking applications in the form of a mass movement and was successful in raising money, organize locally and fight out the smear campaign. Such ventures proved to be a historic milestone for the Obama campaigns, as it first ensured his win over the fellow democrat Hillary Clinton and subsequently over the Republican rival John McCain. Even after getting elected to the office Obama sought to continue the trend and argued his case to bring his Blackberry to the Oval office. The arguments from the administration about security concerns and a tradition of e-mail-free presidents did not help and Obama was successful in finding a secure way to hold on the communicator, his dependable ally during the run up to the presidency (Heussner, 2009). President Obama started off his tenure amidst uncertainty and gloom in the economy. People expected something concrete from him on this front. After 100 days in office, a survey carried out by Wall Street Journal/NBC News came out with the finding that 61 percent people approved the job Obama has done as the President (WSJ, 2009). Obama administration has been active on many fronts. The top five agendas taken up by the admin include; i. Economic Stimulus Plan: President Obama was able to convince the Congress to pass the $787 billion economic stimulus plan. Impact of the discussion taking place on social networking sites is certainly there on the steps being taken to control the damage on account of recessionary trends. While general public certainly wants that the corporate world requires a helping hand, but at the same time, it desires that the sanctity of public money should be maintained. Owing to such pressures, President Obama, blasted off the 165 million dollars largesse being offered by American International Group (AIG) to its executives in the form of bonuses. He instructed the Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner to make sure that the bailout money is not misused (BBC, 2009). ii. Setting up of Green Team: The damage being done to the environment by the rising levels of industrial pollution and some of the policies of the corporate world have been a topic of discussion at almost all SNS. Besides the individuals, a number of NGOs like AVAAZ took up the matter and sent across messages to the US administration (Avaaz, 2008). This seems to have an impact on the decision making and Barak Obama came out with a team of specialists to suggest remedial measures towards protecting the environment. Obama issued strict environmental directives calling on the EPA to1 'revisit a request from California and 13

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The Requirement and Concept of Professionalism Essay

The Requirement and Concept of Professionalism - Essay Example However, according to Vener (1780), professionalism can loosely be defined as the skills and competence required or held by a person regarded as professional. It is thus a status of practice capability (Vener 1780). In order to comprehensively understand the concept, there is only one effective way to use, and that is to understand the attributes that constitute professionalism. The desirable attributes include altruism, honesty, compassion, accountability, social responsibility, the ability to read and communicate effectively as well as dress and act appropriately-just to mention, but a few (Vickie 131). It is the integration of such attributes and many other desirable attributes that create the aura of professionalism that practitioners and institutions should possess so as to guarantee improved healthcare outcomes. This paper reviews my research study period, and how the events of the period and involved people displayed professionalism in practice. Working on the morning shift greatly differed in the facility from what I had observed on night shifts. The night shifts were busier and everyone was either in a hurry to prepare the patient room for the next coming patient or preparing already admitted expectant mothers for delivery. I arrived at the facility at 7.00 a.m. and waited for Mrs. Susan, who is the obstetric patient safety nurse, and she arrived at around 8.00 a.m. Upon her arrival, we went through the observation tool that I had created for the study with additional help from Carey. This was in line with the professional need to align the study tool the study goals and objectives so as to achieve informative outcomes that would inform better practice. After a three-hour review, we all decided to have the tool completed prior to 11th December. The earlier completion was meant to help me have more time working with the unit.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Lean in Nissan UK Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Lean in Nissan UK - Assignment Example 201). In order to obtain maximum benefits of the market and the target audience, it is ideal for companies in this industry to focus of exploitation of the global market with the aim of increasing the total revenues and profit levels at the end of the financial year (Meredith, 2012, p12). Performance is determined by market share or coverage in that organizations that have significant market share possess higher chances of addressing the needs and preferences of their targeted audiences across the globe. The industry also focuses on meeting of standards and quality determinants in relation to performance of the company (Medinilla, 2012, p17). Qingdao Haier faces stiff competition from four vital companies within the Motor vehicle industry across the globe. These four crucial competitors within the appliances industry include Ford Motor Company (United States), Benz and Toyota (China). These organizations thrive on extensive market coverage or share thus a reflection of large consumer base. The organizations also thrive in their approaches of invading global market with the aim of maximizing benefits of opportunities and options available at their disposal. These mentioned organizations enjoy dominance within the industry because of practicing of diversity in relation to their products thus the ability to segment their markets (Kanji, 1995, p66). Segmentation of the market depends on the geographical locations, age, economic status, and climatic conditions. The weaknesses of the company rest on their inability to exploit difficult opportunities prior to the exploration of easy options in the global market (Murch, 2004, p34). Buyers in the in company purchase their goods through different methods. One of the common methods of procurement within the company is through order and delivery approach. This approach requires the buyer to evaluate the need and quality of the Vehicle and then place an order with the Nissan Company within the Motor vehicle industry. The ne xt approach is to purchase its products through sub-branches. This entails visiting of stores to procure the needed product with reference to the financial status of the buyer and the need for the Motor (Cooke, 2010, p22). The market in which The Nissan Company is operating in has the ability to fulfill the demands of segmentation. From the perspective of the organization, it is ideal to practice diversity in the presentation of goods and services to the market or targeted audiences (Panneerselvam & Senthilkumar, 2010, p66). Despite the essence of diversity facing criticism in UK, the organization has the ability to segment the market. This is through practicing what consumers view as specialization in the operation market. In illustrations of the segmentation of the market, the organization participates in the provision of numerous Motor vehicle services such as spare parts (Goodpasture, 2010, p34). The organization has the ability to meet the demands of consumers in relation to th e segmentations in the market. This is essential towards quantification of the market segments in valuation of the revenue levels at the end of the financial year. Quantification of the market segments is evident in the motor vehicle industry that constituted 70 percent of the total revenue of the organization of about $ 12.1 billion in 2004. (Littek & Charles, 1995, p56) One of the requirements for success in the Company is the ability to control the market through large market share. This ensures that the organization

Friday, July 26, 2019

Alternative Fuel Company Case Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Alternative Fuel Company Case - Research Paper Example This predictive model is deemed to encompass both the recent and the earlier demand for the goods. The moving average model is the most obvious model here since the data given is that which is deemed to produce units demanded for the previous years. Since the predictive model uses the historical data for its analysis, it forms the best model for this type of analysis (Sharma, 2009). The reasoning behind this calculation is that the company sales each year represent the amount of units that the consumer will need each year. this is accentuated by the fact that the demand for these goods are deemed to be having positive correlation with the company’s units that they are suppose to produce (Crum, & Palmatier, 2003). Given this sense of reasoning, it is evident that the previous trend in the sales could be used in making sure that the company predicts its demand in the most favorable way. The sales department expects the growth in Year four to more closely resemble the average growth experienced in the last two years. Predict the number of units expected in Year Four. Discuss whether you would recommend this quantity as the manufacturing plan or the quantity found using the simple three year moving average in step two and why. From the two predictions of the two prospects of sales in units, the second prediction looks more accurate than the first one. This is because the second method of calculation inculcates the inter year growth of these sales in units. It is also a fact that the company is deemed to produce more using the second prediction model since this require the availability of higher amount of units than the company that would cater for any shortages that might be brought in (Artis, 2012). In Year Three, one fourth of the production was sold in China. The marketing department has just learned of a new tax that will be imposed on all luxury imports into China beginning in Year Four. It is expected that this will

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Data Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Data Analysis - Essay Example Second in the list was those aged 21-25 years old at 25% while the respondents aged 18-20 and 26-30 years old were represented at 13% each. Despite five websites i.e. Flickr, Imgur, Instagram, Pinterest, Deviant Art being of interest in the study, it was observed that the only commonly used site is Flickr. 75% of the respondents admitted to be using the Flickr while 25% of the respondents did not respond to the question. It seems the respondents have little time to visit the photo sharing websites. Majority of the respondents interviewed (75%), said to be using the photo sharing websites occasionally, 12.5% use photo sharing frequently while 12.5% admitted to be not using the photo sharing websites. Ease of access and sharing came out as the greatest advantages of using photo sharing websites. 29% of the respondents agreed that photo sharing websites are advantageous in the sense that they are both easy to access and easy to use in sharing the photos. Equal number of participants (14%) mentioned about availability of space, confidentiality and quality of photos as some of the advantages of using photo sharing websites. Website photo sharing is of paramount importance however a few checkups need to be rectified for the trust among the users be increased. Currently people view it as being insecure, it will be very important if security and privacy is improved to allow people interact more proactively with the

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Cesaer Beccaria & Classical Theories of Crime and Punishment Research Paper

Cesaer Beccaria & Classical Theories of Crime and Punishment - Research Paper Example Crime is any action that violates basic believes and values of a society. These beliefs are values are the laws that the society observes, in maintaining peace and order. A person who violates these laws has to face its consequences and this is referred to as punishment. Crime and punishment classical theories are based on the philosophy of utilitarian. Cesare Beccaria was a classical school philosopher who argued that people are free to decide on how to act, and secondly, human beings are hedonists, who look for pleasure while avoiding pain and the weight of benefits and costs of the actions consequences. This theory, however, ignores motivational factors’ possibility like unconscious drives and irrationality of individuals. The theory states that: punishment of sufficient severity is the only way of stopping people from committing crime because its costs are more than the benefits. However, punishment severity should be proportional to the crime. The more certain and swift t he punishment is, the more effective it’s likely to be in preventing behaviors of crime. However, his views contrast and compare to the contemporary theory of Rational Choice Theory. Classical Theories The theory states that individuals freely choose their own actions and that avoiding such acts is only possible if the benefits that the individual expects are less than the costs, for example facing severe punishment. Therefore, the assumptions of classical theory are; all people are by nature self seeking, and hence are responsible to committing crimes. An agreement to protect private property power among others, and people deliberately enter into social agreements with the government in order to maintain peace, law is only a sign of moral agreement coherence as all people are rational and finally, every individual is responsible for his own actions. The theory also states that the behavior of law breaking is as a result of irrational actions of some people, who because of th eir shortcomings are unable to uphold an agreement with their nation or state. According to the classical theory of crime, people who disobey the law are punished in order to stop them from destructing other peoples’ rights, and this gives the government a choice to punish them and implement the penalty, since the society is independently established by people. Furthermore, the theory says that penalties must equal the interest that the crime violates and concentration should be centered on the act (Beccaria, 1764). The classical theory argues that laws should be few and execution settled down on time. Penalty should also aim at compensating valuable activity and reprimanding destructive activities. According to these theories, a penalty application should not fail when based on the committed crime and excusive cases or moderating conditions should not exist. Betham observes that anything done should aim at providing the greatest happiness to as many people as possible. Furth ermore, he says that penalty strictness was so high, to give rise to death punishment. Theory Policies Beccaria appealed for reasoning principle where he called for state understanding as a kind of contract, and utility principle, above all, as of the biggest happiness for the biggest number. He openly condemned penalty of death on two grounds: first, he argued that the state has no right to take away lives and secondly, he said that capital punishment is not a useful form of punishment.

Visual Argument Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Visual Argument - Research Paper Example Judging from the first instance of seeing this visual argument, the researcher of this paper thinks that Nike is supposedly advocating freedom to do what you want, breaking barriers and conquering limits (especially when buying Nike products), which is in this case invoked by the freedom of the boy peeing on a wall. This argument would be analyzed further in the next part of the paper. In order to evaluate carefully the visual argument of Nike’s ad, the researcher would try to use the three rhetorical appeals: ethos (credibility), logos (logical reasoning and evidence), and as well as pathos (emotional appeal). In this case, the visual argument would be evaluated according to ethos logos and pathos, in that order, through using the text, the design, and as well as the image of this particular visual argument. In addition to this, the researcher would also cite the opinion of a colleague on Nike’s visual argument, wherein the researcher would react from his opinion. Usin g the first rhetorical appeal of ethos, the researcher thinks that Nike’s visual argument actually compromises the credibility of the rhetoric that Nike is trying to point out.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Econ 157 Problem Set Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Econ 157 Problem Set - Assignment Example These curves can cross in more than one place. Here an unequivocal statement regarding the income distribution of these two countries cannot be made. However Gini coefficient is a definite value between 0 and 1. If the Gini coefficient of country-one is greater than country- two it can be concluded that country two has comparatively a better income distribution compared to the country-1. Poverty headcount ratio indicates the percentage proportion of population which is below the poverty line set by the central bank. With increasing value of the denominator Po value of this equation can decline. Example: country’s poverty can increase at a lower rate compared to the total population growth while decreasing Po. Here the headcount of poor increase while the Po value decrease. Consumers spend a higher proportion of total household income to buy essential foods in poor countries. Therefore decreasing income can substantially decrease the calorie intake by the families in these countries. In developed countries consumers’ food basket includes non-essential foods and their utility is influenced by non-nutrient related concerns such as taste. Therefore income change can affect minimally to their calorie intake. In the above model measurement error is produced from the unobserved variables. In regression analyses it is assumed that unobserved factors are independent from the explanatory variables. However ability and schooling are correlated. Therefore biased estimates can be produced. In describing the differences in economic development across countries geography and institutions are commonly used. Geography argument states that localized environment determine the quality of factors of production such as land, labor, capital and technology available in different countries. Thus location specific characteristics such as climate, being landlocked, special linkages with other countries and endowment of natural resources

Monday, July 22, 2019

Coffee and Starbucks Essay Example for Free

Coffee and Starbucks Essay How Did Starbucks Become an Icon of America Pop Culture? â€Å"Coffee† is a high frequency word in people’s lives. Students like to read books with sunshine and a cup of coffee. Professors like to walk into their classrooms to start their first class with cups of coffee in hand. People usually drink coffee with their breakfast. Most fast food breakfast meals, such as McDonald’s, include a cup of coffee. A cup of coffee in the morning can give people an energetic and fresh day. â€Å"Americans really do like coffee. † This saying comes from a video called The History of Coffee Culture in America. Coffee culture is profound in America. Most American people love coffee not only because coffee culture is popular and cool, but also because it tastes good. Americans already had adapted well to let coffee become a part of their lives. When the topic comes to coffee, people always think of Starbucks because it is different from other coffee stores. It has customized service, superior taste, a wide range of options, and unique packaging and ideals. As time goes on, Starbucks more and more approaches people’s lives and becomes an important part of the coffee culture in America, even in the whole world. Now, the Starbucks brand has become a part of pop culture in this 2 wang century. It uses a superior product, unique principles and attractive designs to make an ordinary coffee shop become special and exceptional. Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world (Starbucks). It had 10,924 stores in the United States in 2012, and the company has been expanding and growing quickly in the two years since (Starbucks Company Statistics). The first Starbucks opened in Seattle, Washington, on March 30, 1971, by three partners who met while they were students (Starbucks). People always think the Starbucks green logo is Heather Graham holding up two striped bass, but the symbol actually means obsession, addiction and death. People may not realize that the woman in their green label with twin fishtails is a siren from Greek mythology. She was chosen as the logo because Starbucks was looking for a nautical theme to capture the spirit of Seattle (7 Horrifying). Maybe people will ask, then why is Starbucks called â€Å"Starbucks†? The name â€Å"Starbucks† is not picked randomly by the originator, it actually means a lot. It is nothing to do with the logo and product. Actually â€Å"Starbucks† is a person’s name. In a famous novel called Moby Dick, the whaler â€Å"Pequod† has a first-mate who loves coffee very much. His name is Starbucks. The book Pour Your Heart Into It-How Starbucks Built A Company One Cup at a Time is written by Howard Schultz. He is Starbucks’ chairman. He thought the name â€Å"Starbucks† reminds people of the sea adventure stories and histories about coffee merchant travel around the world to find high quality coffee beans (Dori Jones Yang). The originators actually expected a lot from this name and this company from the beginning. 3 wang. Thefirstandalsothemostimportanttraitforasuccessfulbusinessisasuperior product. They are committed to buying and serving high-quality coffee to keep the pure taste. Starbucks’ coffee beans mainly come from Costa Rica and Asia. They have strict management system to control the quality of coffee beans and other products. That is why Starbucks can keep purity of their coffee (Starbucks). GreatvarietyisanotherreasonpeoplepreferStarbucks. Ithastonsofflavorsof coffees. They also have a secret menu, which not a lot of people know. People also can design their own coffee in Starbucks App. Starbucks also has special coffee for each season even special events, such as pumpkin flavor drinks for Halloween. â€Å"Starbucks up to now is not just a coffee maker. It actually only makes coffee-flavored drinks,† a Starbucks’ marketing manager said in a promotion video. They are professionals at making coffee drinks, and firstly they have to learn how to make it right. Legend is one of the originators; he went to Italy-the birth of coffee-to visit for a few months before they started the business. Starbucksalsohaveauniqueideaabouthowtosealcoffeethathascreativenew practices around the country. They uses Italian words for the cup size such as â€Å"Grande† for medium, not only to demonstrate that they are professional, but also to give people a feeling that it is cool and fashionable. Even though people do not think â€Å"Grande† can prove this coffee store is professional, it will still give people a feeling that they are special. Starbucks does not give much advance publicity, and they do not have a lot of 4 wang posters, but the few posters they have are concise and specific. The main idea of the poster is to express that coffee is equal to energy. The â€Å"Morning† set of posters tells people they need caffeine to make the day full of energy. An energetic day sounds attractive, so Starbucks’ use of people’s desire to have â€Å"an energetic day† encourages people to buy coffee. Starbucks also has another feature. They are not the same as other coffee stores, which encourage people to drink slowly and enjoy the coffee. On the contrary, they make â€Å"fast coffee. † Starbucks has a drive-thru, which is the principle for fast food. Fast coffee attracts different customer groups than other coffee stores. â€Å"Fast coffee† is more suitable for office workers, administrative workers, students, teachers, etc. who are adapting to the fast paced life. They are not poor and they do not have time to sit down and enjoy coffee in the coffee store, so Starbucks is absolutely suitable for them. These kinds of customers account for the vast majority of people. The totally different principles make Starbucks become a totally different coffee store, standing out and becoming a leader of the whole coffee market. The huge customer base makes Starbucks become a part of the coffee culture, not a small coffee company any more. The huge customer group also gives this logo special definition, which is fashionable and cool. People have group psychology, which means people usually are interested in the activities that other people are doing. For example, if 90% of one’s friends like to eat â€Å"pepperoni pizza† for lunch, then that person must want to try it, unless he/she hates pizza. The Starbucks image is another feature. Not a lot of coffee stores write the 5 wang customer’s name on their cup. That is interesting and makes the customer feel special. Starbucks’ special management philosophy and principle make it special enough to make people talk about it and want to become a part of pop culture, too. Thereisanoldsentence,â€Å"Firstimpressionsareveryimportant. †Thedesignand appearance are the first impression that Starbucks gives to customers. So the attractive design is also an important reason why Starbucks has become a part of pop culture in this century. The first important design is the logo, which is the â€Å"enchantress† from the Greek mythology. It gives customers a feeling of mystery, pretty and decorative. The outstanding logo makes their products attractive. Starbucks sells their â€Å"Starbucks China Cups† for not a low price, but still a lot of people want to buy it. The main reason is they are pretty, and people do not think cups with a Starbucks’ logo are ugly. The second reason, of course, people think Starbucks is cool and popular. It is a symbol of fashion. A wide range of options and attractive design makes Starbucks products become more and more welcome. Not only the pretty logo and the products, the gift card is another highlight of attractive design. Most big companies or stores have their own special gift card, but Starbucks has many. They have tons of different design gift cards each year, for different seasons, special festivals, birthdays, birth and graduates. Their pretty designs and special meaning made them popular. Starbucks is popular,but customershave topay forit. Starbucks’ averageprice for coffee ruled higher than other coffee stores. A tall latte in Starbucks is $3. 00 without tax. 6 wang In McDonald’s it is only $1. 99, and in Dunkin Donuts it is only $1. 69 (Yahoo Answers). Thus it can be seen that Starbucks goes far beyond the average price. If people want to enjoy high quality coffee or catch up with fashions, people have to pay more money. Different company usually has different consumer orientation. High-level consumer group usually do not care about a few dollars. They only care about the quality and how easy and fast it is. Actually that group of people is in the minority. Most people care about a few dollars, especially people who loves coffee. Spend few more dollars on each cup of coffee is actually a huge number of money. People have to face a trade-off. Want to catch up with fashions or improve the status? Then pay more money first. NoonecandenythepopularityofStarbucks. Itusesitsspecialdesigntocatch customers’ eyes, such as their representative logo and their special design cups. Then they use excellent products and unique taste to keep customers coming back. Finally uses people’s group psychology and the strong principle to make themselves to became a part of popular culture, not only a coffee shop. Now, Starbucks is a trend. It is expensive, but still a lot people chase after it. Work Cited Coffee Culture. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Sept. 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. 7 wang Curtasu, Matei. Starbucks Good Morning! Good Morning! Behance. Behance, 11 July 2012. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. Starbucks Company Statistics. Statistic Brain RSS. Starbucks Company Statistics, 12 Aug. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. Starbucks Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Sept. 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. The History of Coffee Culture in America. History, Travel, Arts, Science, People, Places. N. p. , n. d. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. Why is Starbucks coffee so expensive? Coffee isnt worth five bucks! Blinkie dot org. 5 Nov. 2012. Blinkie dot org. 30 Apr. 2014 Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n. d. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. 7 Horrifying Historical Origins of Famous Corporate Logos. Cracked. com. Cracked, 16 Feb. 2012. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Case Study of Managing patient suffering Opoid constipation

Case Study of Managing patient suffering Opoid constipation This case study outlines the clinical management of a client with a problem with Opioid induced constipation. Opioid analgesics (narcotics) cause constipation in most people. Opioids slow down the stool as it passes along the intestinal tract. This causes the stool to become hard. If you have hard stools, have difficulty passing bowel movements and the movements become infrequent, then you have constipation. Constipation can be very bothersome and last as long as you are taking narcotics on a regular basis. Therefore, it is important that we learn to manage our bowels effectively. Throughout the analysis the anonymity and confidentiality of this patient will be protected as outlined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) and therefore the patient will be referred to as Mark Scott. Additionally consent was gained by Mark to allow the author to use his case for my assessment. History of present illness Mark Scott is a 64 year old gentleman who is 2 days post op following a Right Total Hip Replacement (RTHR). Total hip replacement involves removal of a diseased hip joint and replacement with a prosthetic joint. Whilst doing the medications Mark confided in the nurse that he may have a problem with his bowels and that he may be constipated. To enable the nurse to assess Mark she would have to understand constipation, it helps to know how the colon, or large intestine, works. As food moves through the colon, the colon absorbs water from the food while it forms waste products, or stool. Muscle contractions in the colon then push the stool toward the rectum. By the time stool reaches the rectum it is solid, because most of the water has been absorbed. Constipation occurs when the colon absorbs too much water or if the colons muscle contractions are slow or sluggish, causing the stool to move through the colon too slowly. As a result, stools can become hard and dry. Mark asked the nurse if there was anything she could give him to ease the discomfort he was experiencing, However as Mark has presented with a new problem with the possibility of him needing medication, the nurse would first need to undertake a holistic assessment of Mark. The purpose of assessment is to allow the nurse to examine all relevant factors of the problem and allow her to make the decision of whether prescribing a patient group directive (PGD) is an appropriate intervention (Humphries, 2002). Consider the patient When Mark stated he thought he was constipated, it was important to ascertain his own interpretation of what this meant. For example, Wondergerm (2005) states that for some, constipation may mean opening their bowels less than three times a day. On the other hand, constipation may mean opening of the bowels less than three times a week. There appears to be a general consensus that the range for normal bowel activity lies somewhere between three bowel motions daily to one bowel motion every three days. However, it is important to remember that a change from three bowel motions a day to one every three days may represent a significant change for the patient, despite remaining within the normal limits (Peate, 2003). Mark felt he was constipated because he hadnt had a bowel movement in the last five days. On further questioning it emerged that these symptoms had been going on approximately 4 days before his surgery and when he did have a bowel movement he had difficulty passing the stools and often had to strain. Mark also stated that the stools were very hard and painful to pass, the symptoms that Mark presented with were consistent with the side effects of constipation, However the cause of constipation is multifactoriol with many influencing factors that need to be investigated and eliminated wherever possible (Banks,1998). In Marks case it was the analgesia he was taking to control his pain post operatively. During Marks assessment, enquiries were made as to whether he was experiencing any other symptoms with his constipation, such as blood in the stools, rectal bleeding and/or mucus discharge, recent weight loss, abdominal pain or alternating constipation/diarrhoea. Edwards and Bentley (2001) state that this is important during history taking as all of these symptoms are common of colon and rectal cancer and the possibility of this disease should be in the mind of the nurse looking after Mark. Mark assured the nurse that he hadnt experienced any of the symptoms mentioned although he did have a little discomfort in the area of his abdomen, lots of wind but no pain. If Mark had any of these symptoms the nurse would have to liase with the patients consultant. No medication would have been given by the nurse at this stage. This is because as a nurse, she is accountable for her actions and omissions (NMC, 2008). For example, if Mark was to have a bowel obstruction such as a tumour which is c ontra-indicated for most laxatives, and the nurse had prescribed such medication then Mark may believe he has been harmed by her careless prescribing. Additionally failure to refer a patient for more senior opinion is considered to fall below an acceptable standard of care (Griffith and Tengnah, 2004). It is important to ascertain how much dietary fibre and fluids are being taken by the patient as high fibre content is effective in increasing stool weight and bowel movement frequency, ultimately preventing constipation. Additionally, low fluid intake has been associated with constipation, slowing colonic transit time or reducing stool output (Walker, 1997). Current medication regimes, whether prescribed or purchased over the counter is essential information and can assist in identifying any drugs that may be responsible for causing constipation (Annells and Koch, 2002). Additionally, a history of medicine taking should include noting whether a patient has any allergies. For example, arachis oil enemas have a nut basis and may cause allergic reactions (Edwards and Bentley, 2001). Pre and post operatively Mark had been prescribed analgesics in the form of Paracetamol, codiene and ibuprofen for his pain. He had been taking these regularly daily. Mark wasnt taking any other medication, wasnt allergic to anything he knew of and hadnt purchased anything over the counter for his constipation. Opioids are a common cause of constipation and act by increasing intestinal smooth muscle tone, by suppressing forward peristalsis and reducing sensitivity to rectal distension. This results in delayed passage of faeces through the gut (Fallon and ONeil, 1998). Through assessment together with eliminating possible causes and sinister abnormalities, the nurse diagnosed Mark with constipation secondary to opioid use. Which Strategy/Product Where the patient complains of feeling constipated and is experiencing discomfort, a rectal examination (DRE) is indicated in order to detect a loaded rectum and to determine which choice of product to administer, and this will depend on the consistency of the stool found on examination (Edwards and Bentley 2001). Digital rectal examination (DRE) is an invasive procedure and should only be performed after completion of a full assessment of constipation. The Royal College of nursing guidelines (2006) recommend that nurses undertaking digital examination are appropriately trained. Furthermore consent to this procedure needs to be gained as outlined by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2008) Further to examination, it emerged that no stools could be felt within the rectum. However, Edwards and Bently (2001) suggest that it is anatomically impossible to conclude that the rectum is empty through simple digital examination, as the length of the rectum is approximately 15cm and is th erefore beyond the reach of the longest index finger. Therefore due to Marks history, the preferred medical route will therefore guide the need to administer a laxative. Amongst the stimulant laxatives are senna and bisacodyl. These laxatives stimulate the intestinal mucosa, promoting the secretion of water and electrolytes, enourging peristalsis (Duncan, 2004). Timby et al (1999) recommend that stimulant laxatives be used only for short periods of time to allow normal bowel function to return as soon as possible as long term use may result in diarrhoea and hypokalaemia. However Marks constipation may remain for as long as he is using opioids or could re-occur. Therefore this type of laxative may not be sufficient. Osmotic laxatives act by retaining fluid within the bowel that they are administered to or by drawing fluid from the body. They include lactulose, macragols, magnesium salts, rectal phosphates and rectal sodium citrate (Peate, 2003). A phosphate enema would not be used in this case because this is usually used prior to radiology, endoscope and surgery for rapid bowel clearance. Additionally Mark stated he didnt want to go through having an enema, and would prefer something he could take orally. Lactulose is non-absorbable and acts by softening and increasing water absorption. This laxative may take up to 72 hours to act and bloating, flatulence, cramping and an unpleasant taste have all been reported side effects, (Banks, 1998). Additionally, lactulose may not be suitable in constipation where gut motility is impaired such as opioid use in Marks case, unless accompanied by a stimulant such as Senna. However, choosing a senna/lactulose combination, means that taken together they will act at different times (Edwards and Bently, 2001). However, evidence comparing different types of laxative is very limited. Nonetheless, a study was found comparing a low dose macragol with lactulose for the treatment of constipation. The treatment was 1-3 sachets of compound oral powder (movicol) versus 10-30g of lactulose daily. After 4 weeks patients in the movicol group had a mean number of stools and a lower median daily score for straining than the lactulose group (Attar et al, 1999).This concluded that movicol was more effective and better tolerated than lactulose in the treatment of constipation. This would then justify prescribing movicol for Mark, therefore increasing the frequency of bowel movements and reducing straining. However the Nurse had to get Marks doctor to prescribe Movicol as it is not listed in Patient group directive, so the nurse gave Mark 10mls of lactulose and 2 senna until this was prescribed. Negotiate contract In implementing the strategy the consent and agreement of the patient is paramount, and may be viewed as a shared contract between patient and nurse. This is known as concordance. It is important for nurses to adopt this approach to administering medication, as this directly involves patients in decision making about their treatment. It must be remembered that nurses owe a duty of care to their patients. Duty of care is a legal requirement owed by one person to another to take reasonable care not to cause harm. The courts have held that the nurse-patient relationship gives rise to such a duty (Kent v Griffiths, 2001). Additionally, common law decided from cases requires that nurses take care when prescribing, otherwise, a patient harmed by careless medicine administration can sue for damages by claiming negligence (Griffith and Tengnah, 2004). It is essential therefore that duty of care extends to quality of prescribing, including, assessment, advice and information giving, record ke eping, decision making along with medication selection and calculation, as well as communication with the patient and other professionals. The patient needs to know what is expected of them in carrying out the treatment plan and when the nurse needs to reassess the situation. Additionally the patient needs to know what the medication is for, how long it takes to work and how to take the product (Edwards and Bentley, 2001). In Marks case it was explained to him that he would be prescribed a product by the name of movicol for his constipation and evidence found on its appropriateness along with possible side effects for his condition was explained. He would receive 20 sachets with a view to taking 1-3 sachets a day. It was explained he would have to mix 1 sachet with 125ml of water (British National Formulary, BNF 2009) and the importance of drinking 2lts of fluid was explained along with the effects that movicol will have within his bowel. Mark was alerted to any know side effects of movicol as these could be alarming to the patient if that information is not given, for example, abdominal distension, pain and nausea. However this does not mean that Mark will experience any of these. Nonetheless, this information is essential and Mark was told to report any adverse effects to the nurse. Record keeping The NMC (2005) guidelines for records and record keeping, state that good record keeping is integral to our role as records are sometimes called in evidence in order to investigate a complaint. In light of this all details, including full assessment details, along with care plans which were both planned and executed, plans for review, and medications and prescriptions given, were all entered into Marks patient held records immediately. Additionally this was also recorded within notes in Nursing Notes. Marks own consultant was also informed of this information in order to assist with prescribing and also to avoid polypharmacy and adverse events from drug interactions. The nurse also ensured the drug card was signed as per NMC guidelines. Complementary Therapies Complementary therapies are treatments used to support regular or orthodox treatments such as medication. These treatments may be used to reduce stress and anxiety or may be used to help with problems such as pain, nausea and constipation. Abdominal massage has been shown to be effective as a marginally effective laxative regimen in one trial. However, massage is extremely demanding on staff time, and consequently is unlikely to be of widespread benefit to the patient. Acupuncture, One small within subject trial of sham versus true acupuncture showed some benefit in chronically constipated children, but acupuncture has never been tested for opioid-induced constipation. Herbal preparations such as Senna, a laxative, may be used as pods or a tea. Rhubarb stems (not the leaf, which contains poisonous oxalic acid), chrysanthemum stems, and peach leaves have laxative properties. Many preparations promoted as herbal or natural laxatives are in fact bulk forming preparations which should be avoided in opioid-induced constipation. However, if possible medication can be avoided as bowel movements may be facilitated if done at the same time every day, by mobility and physical activity, and increased dietary fibre and fluid intake. However, these approaches alone may not benefit all patients, especially those with severe constipation. Nevertheless, deficiencies in physical activity, and fluid and fibre intake should be addressed. Physical constraints and barriers should also be rectified, and commonsense toilet practices should be reinforced, such as not suppressing the urge to defecate, and using public washrooms if out of the house rather than waiting to return home. Summary The above account highlights that in the clinical management of medicine administration, it is vital that this is undertaken in an informed and systematic manner. This can be achieved through the selection and application of an assessment tool and by having clarity about the decision-making framework used to underpin Evidence Based Practice. The NMC emphasises that the administration of medicines is an integral and essential entry criteria for the Councils Professional Register (NMC, 2008). Furthermore, the Code of Professional Conduct clearly states that medication administration must not be seen solely as a mechanistic task but as a task that requires thought and the exercise of professional judgement (NMC, 2008). For nurses to practice competently, they must ensure that they possess the knowledge, skills and abilities required for lawful, safe and effective practice. They must acknowledge their professional competence and only undertake practice and accept responsibilities for those activities in which they are competent (NMC, 2008). The NMC guidelines of professional conduct (2008) require that nurses must maintain knowledge and competence. This can partly be achieved by the use of reflection on prescribing and administrating decisions. Word Count 3012 References Annells M Koch T (2002) Faecal impaction: Older peoples experiences and nursing practice. British Journal of Community Nursing. 7 (3)118-126 Banks A (1998) An overview of constipation: causes and treatment. International Journal of Palliative Nursing 4 (6) 271-275. Duncan J (2004) The management of constipation by nurse prescribers. Nurse prescribing 2 (2) 66-69. Edwards M Bentley A (2001) Nursing management of constipation in housebound older people. British Journal of Community Nursing, 6 (5) 245-252. Fallon M, ONeil (1998) ABC of Palliative Care. London, BMJ books. Griffith R, Tengnah C (2004) A question of negligence: the law and the standard of prescribing. Nurse Prescribing 2 (2) 90-92. Hardy, D., Smith, B. (2008) Decision Making in Clinical Practice. British Journal of Anaesthetic Recovery Nursing. Vol. 9 (1), pp. 19-21 Humphries J (2002) Assessment and evaluation in nurse prescribing, 2nd ed Palgrave, Hampshire. Kent v Griffiths (2001) QB 36 IN Griffith R, Tengnah C (2004) A question of negligence: the law and the standard of prescribing. Nurse Prescribing 2 (2) 90-92. Kyle, G. (2007) Bowel care, part 5 a practical guide to digital rectal examination. Nursing Times; 103: 45, 28-29. Nursing and Midwifery council (2008) Guidelines for records and record keeping. London. Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2008) The Code: Standards of Conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. London, NMC. Wondergerm F (2005) Relieving constipation. Journal of community nursing, 5 12-16 Peate I (2003) Nursing role in the management of constipation: use of laxatives. British Journal of Nursing. 12 (19) 1130-1136. RCN (2006) Digital Rectal Examination and Manual Removal of Faeces: Guidance for Nurses. London: RCN Timby B, Schere J, Smith N (1999) Introductory Medical-Surgical Nursing. 7th edn. , Philadelphia, Lippincott. Walker R (1997) Diagnosis and treatment of constipation. Practice Nursing 8 (4) 20-22

Ethnographic Methods in Qualitative Research

Ethnographic Methods in Qualitative Research Firstly, this essay outlines a definition of both qualitative and ethnography methods. It will then explain how four articles of qualitative research have used the ethnographic method. It will discuss each article then compare and contrast them. Finally, the essay will look at a critical analysis of ethnography by linking the articles to the data written. They are as follows: Impact of financial incentives on clinical autonomy and internal motivation in primary care: ethnographic study is article one; Assessing the promise of user involvement in health service development: ethnographic study is article two; Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study is article three; and Role of ethnographic research for assessing behavior of employees during cleaning and sanitation in food preparation areas is article four. And finally, it will look at different perspectives on ethnography such as feminist and postmodernist. Qualitative research collects data that usually diary accounts, open-ended questionnaires, unstructured interviews and unstructured observations (Jamshed, 2004). This kind of research is hard to measure. It includes things such as eye colour or characteristics of something that are obtained by in-depth research through collecting rich data. Therefore, qualitative research can be described, rather than measurable data (quantitative) (Patton and Cochran, 2002). Ethnography is used to represent the study of realism through knowledge and experiences, and the understanding of human behaviour, and in addition It consists of debates on the emergence of todays society. Max Weber definition embraces the explanation and understanding by using the interpretive understanding of social action, where interpretivism is subjective meaning to social action. Schutz (1962) suggest it is observation on the experiences of everyday lives (Schutz, 1962, p. 59 cited in Bryman, 2008, p.16). Ethnography is a study of observation and interviews, and developing an understanding of the society and individuals behaviour. According to Sarsby (1984) every field is different and it is being at the right place at the right time (Bryman, 2008, p. 401) and building a relationship with partcipants. Article one is a study that was done using observations and interviews. The research explores the attitudes and patterns of behaviour of the staff. The researchers had interviews that were both formal and informal conversations with most of the staff. To get the details it was requested that the partcipants described their job roles. They were asked what their views were on how it affected their jobs with new contracts (MacDonald, 2007). The methods they used were interviews and observations of involvement within the practice. They stated that the data of these methods helped to compare the behaviour of the staff (MacDonald, 2007). With the interviews, they transcribed and coded to recognise the developing areas. They conversed with the research team frequently to assess expectations and also to categorise ways for more study (MacDonald, 2007). There are limitations to this study, as the researchers conducted insignificant samples and there were no views from the staff within the practices. Besides that, they found that they could not observe the motivation of the staff. This is because it might delay observations of their behaviour and the writing up of their findings (MacDonald, 2007). The research shows the early stages and there is a need for further research (MacDonald, 2007). The outline of the study where the structural deviations linked with the implementation of the quality and outcomes has shown the ways that doctors and staff relate to each other. In addition, it shows the difficulty in predicting the long-term costs of the changes (MacDonald, 2007). Article two used participants observations and interviews, and collections of documentary evidence. It was led by professionals that determined the areas that needed improvement where partcipants users could take part (Fudge, 2008). It was hard to identify the effect on the services. Indeed, the study highlighted there was further knowledge of the personal gains for the staff who were involved (Fudge, 2008). By doing this research it gave increased knowledge about strokes and the services available for patients and specialists, and administrative staff (Fudge, 2008). There was not much evidence of direct user involvement of improving quality of services. In addition, there a lack of skilled staff was noticed (Fudge, 2008). The study has limitations because the programme is not directly generalisable to modernisation. Another limitation was that the study was only carried out two years of the three years that was predicted. It only provided part of the study where the user involvement continues to progress (Fudge, 2008). One strength of this research is that, by using the ethnography method, they are able to include participant observations. They can see what the staff actually do instead of what they say (Fudge, 2008). The objective of the research in article three was to describe, explore and to compare organisational routines for repeat prescriptions in doctors surgeries. (Swinglehurst, 2011). The investigation involved mapping the prescribing service by building on a rich description of the organisational doctors surgeries, and also connecting them through combination reports on the repeat prescriptions (Swinglehurst, 2011). The research showed that the receptionists and administrative staff regarded themselves responsible to the patients when repeating prescriptions. It requires a high degree of modifying and the decision of receptionists where there is a need for an updated study for patient protection (Swinglehurst, 2011). It was found by researchers that the doctors were oblivious of the input of their receptionists and administrative staff, indeed, within the article there was no information in the policy documents and previous research. However, the staff were occasionally criticised for n ot getting work done and their indirect ways of safeguarding patients (Swinglehurst, 2011). The research discovered the relationship and pressures of the work they do daily, and to find ways of the issues within the surgeries, and to find a better way for the procedure of repeat prescriptions. They found their research was bigger than any other UK practice. Furthermore, the willingness of the staff being observed could have replicated features of the practice. This is common when observing, as using electronic patient records are combined with pharmacy systems (Swinglehurst, 2011). Article four is a study that observes and undertakes interviews in the workplace. This is to see how they understand and explore practices of food handling and provide measures for the effectiveness of workplace training. The research shows that the results help to identify areas of improvement, by allowing the progress of training with the right tools. This is where the training is inputted from primary production through to food handling by the consumer (Crandell et al., 2015). This study used an ethnography method to collect the data of employees who did the cleaning and sanitation jobs (Crandell et al., 2015). Many tasks were identified while doing an observation interview procedure (Crandell et al., 2015). The study showed that there was a need for improvement and to provide training and materials, and also to regulate whether the SOP and SSOP procedures were being followed as written and if not, why not? (Crandell et al., 2015). The research found that there is a need for new a nd modified work flow, and with new tools and training (Crandell et al., 2015). The researchers used interviews with open-ended questions to fill the gaps that observations cannot pick up. However, there are limitations with open-ended questions that can give diverse information; the answer could be irrelevant to the research, and also the question can be too complex and the interviewee could lose their way in the interview. Another problem is that the person who is being interviewed could be intimidated by the questions. It can be time consuming and the interviews take a long time to transcribe and code. Strengths of open-ended questions interviews include that they can allow for unlimited possible answers and can be answered in detail. Some findings could be gained that the interviewer had not thought of using before. This essay will now use critical analysis of the ethnography method, and it will discuss the findings within the study. An example of ethnography is the Chicago School of Social Research. Robert Park encouraged students to study and observe the continuous changes of social occurrences of Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s. The research was extensive in areas such as crime and deviance, race relations and urbanism (May, 2001, p.147; Bulmer, 1984a; Kurtz, 1984). It is claimed that the researcher was part of the study in order to get an understanding of changes by participating and recording their experiences (May, 2001, p.148). However, it can be argued that individuals act on principles from their environments. This is because they can understand the actions of individuals who occupy and produce cultures, defined as symbolic and learned aspects of human behaviour. Becker (1979) states that there is a need to recognise the difficulties and concepts in order to determine the information within the study (May, 2001, p148). Ethnography leads to an empathetic understanding of a social setting. Glaser and Strauss (1967) state that it should be related to the behaviour of the study. As the researcher is exposed to each social setting it acts as a control on reaching rushed conclusions (May, 2001, pp. 150-151). It is possible that researchers will omit a whole range of data in order to confirm their own pre-established beliefs, leaving the method open to the charge of bias. Furthermore, the observation of small-scale setting leaves it open to the charge that its findings are local, specific and not generalisable. It therefore lacks external validity. This may be challenged by arguing that the observed social setting is typical, by adopting the perspective of realism and examining the generative mechanisms of human interaction (May, 2001, pp. 170 171, Porter, 1993), or using a variety of data sources (May, 2001, p.171). This essay will now compare the four articles. All articles used an ethnography method with interviews and observations. Article one and two did a small amount of research. It is clear if the study was done over a longer term it would have been more accurate. This is because the researchers would have rich and more detailed data. Article two is an example of this statement. It was smaller than the researchers predicted à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ they only researched for two years instead of the three years they predicted. Article one had no mention of the views from the staff and in article three the doctors were unaware of what administrative staff do within the practice. However, they were often asked what they have done within the day. Article four used open-ended questions to fill in the gaps that observation could not identify. However, it can be argued that the questions can be complex and all the answers are not recorded. The first research only used a small group of researchers; the study does not show the views and the outcomes of observation in the study. There were many consequences and it was difficult to recognise the impact of the services. The research found that there is a lack of technical knowledge. However, other studies have shown it helps with the running of the surgery. The third undertook an investigation by charting the services to build a rich description. It showed it is essential for quality and services on repeat prescriptions. Also, it highlights the work that the receptionists and administrative staff do in the background. Indeed, teamwork is essential for patient safety. Finally, the fourth study identifies areas of improvement and training with the right tools. The study evaluates the cleaning process of working with food. Documents were observed and identified the need for improvements in employee training with the right tools, and training for improvement. This kind of research has proved to be first-rate and it seems to be an ideal way to study. Even though there are differences among areas of study, it has delivered an in-depth collection of data. It also often determines more research that needs to done. There are limitations too; time is an issue for ethnographic studies and there are costs with doing full in-depth research. Another example would be funding à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ to do an in-depth research will cost money to do. It will be cheaper to do a survey then an investigation over a long time. However, the main challenge would be acceptance from the people they are studying. They need to be accepted in the area of a study to get the best results. The progress is important to find out the key informants to conduct this kind of research. This is because they would undertake regular reviews and the researchers need to have a good rapport with them. When conducting research participant observation involves looking and listening. The objective is to see individuals in their usual background; the investigator should not interrupt the setting. Blending into the background is usually recommended. However, it can be impossible, for example, when observing in a classroom will be out of place. This can result in an artificial setting (Taylor et al., 1995, p621). However, it can be difficult to observe sometimes a participant observer and interviewers are unclear because researchers usually write up the days finding on the day while they are still fresh in their minds. However, even d oing it on the same day information can be left out due to the fact that the researcher cannot remember everything that has be spoken in the interview. Feminist approach suggests that issues concerning women are often overlooked. Looking through the feminist lens they believe that it is how we think, such as what is the truth and what is false, (epistemology) and it is the reflection of the researcher understanding of what is fact(ontology). According to Marcus (1992) realist ethnographers believe in coherence, community, historical determination and structure (Skeggs, Nd, p.431). In addition, there is a reality out there which can be discovered and identified.(Skeggs,Nd, p.431). Marcus also suggest that it is the question of who or what controls and defines the identity of individuals, social groups, nations and cultures (Skeggs, Nd, p.431). Postmodernists ethnographers focuses on the pressures of issues of globalisation, and the movement of people, and the everyday relations of the world (Weiss and Wesley, Nd). Therefore, different perspectives see ethnography in a different way, and also do their study in various differences of their research. They argue that the nature of knowledge has changed to a new radical theories. The theory of knowledge (epistemology) claims that the truth can be discovered by the use of the correct techniques. In addition, it used to evaluate what is true and what is not, however, postmodernist believe it is possible to rule out the knowledge as being untrue (har Hol, yr, pp. 904/5). In conclusion, this essay has looked at how qualitative research and ethnography methods are used in four different articles. It has sought to identify similarities and differences of using ethnography within research. All four used ethnography with observation and interviews. In the studies, they all highlighted that there is a need for further research and training is needed in all areas of these works of research. Each work of research was done in different areas; however, they have similar aspects in what they covered. However, they have used the study in different ways. It has shown that, when using the qualitative research and ethnographic method, there are strengths and weaknesses. Before starting the research, these have to be examined before deciding on what method to use. By looking at different views on ethnography, it highlights that they look at it in different perspectives of the work of ethnography method.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Educationally Driven Assimilation Essay -- Education, Politics

The United States educational system has existed nearly unchanged for hundreds of years. As the system itself remains the same, the content in courses has not. The discussion of what courses should and should not be required or even offered has shifted into a question of politics. As the movement towards becoming more politically correct has expanded, so has its influence upon the educational system. Education on racial issues, which was once deemed as necessary, are now being removed out. A university that feeds on fear-driven proposals offered by the politically correct movement ultimately decides to remove courses that may be falsely perceived as discriminatory. There is a single question that must be asked due to this new trend. Is political correctness being used to target and remove racial issues from the classroom in an attempt to assimilate all cultures? Using three arguments, this paper will seek to support the idea that forcing political correctness into a classroom removes racial issues, and attempts to assimilate minorities. First, political correctness demands modification of both the educational structure, and of the student. Second, political correctness assimilates both the language and actions of individuals. Third, a discussion of white dominance is required to stop a forced assimilation and create a mutual respect of differences instead. Although being politically correct appears to be good on face, the concept can be weaponized in an attempt to halt unwanted discussion. A highly regarded professor from Harvard was ultimately forced to stop offering his class â€Å"Peopling of America† due to its focus on racial issues. (Taylor, 198). Although the Harvard professor was teaching the same course that ... ...the ideals of political correctness target and assimilate cultural differences. The ideals of being PC require followers to think alike, act alike, discuss things alike, and avoid all of the same questions. Uniformity is not the answer to solving cultural differences. When uniformity is preferred it creates a binary that allows individuals to be considered part of the group or different. It is this categorization of individuals that allows the elite to manipulate and oppress against individuals in the United States. The elites can target a group and the majority will find it justified as that group is not part of the unified. The alternative, however, is to allow discussions of difference to occur. If our society can grow to respect differences instead of try to assimilate them, then we will ultimately have a whole group that can include any form of minority.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Psychological Manipulation in 1984 Essay -- George Orwell

Nineteen Eighty-Four, by George Orwell, is a superb novel with outstanding themes. One of the most prominent themes found in this novel is psychological manipulation. Citizens in this society are subject to ever present signs declaring â€Å"BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU† (Orwell 1). Along with psychological manipulation, physical control takes place. The Party not only controls what people in Oceania think, but what they do as well. Technology is another important theme. Without the constant telescreens, microphones, and computers, the Party would be all but powerless. Big Brother is the main figure of the Party. The main symbol that drives these themes is the telescreens. It is representative of the party always watching and controlling everyone at all times. Psychological manipulation the Party uses on the citizens is one of the first themes Orwell exposes in this dystopian society. The Party maintains this manipulation by constantly overwhelming citizens with useless information and propaganda. And when memory failed and written records were falsified—when that happened, the claim of the Party to have improved the conditions of human life had got to be accepted, because there did not exist, and never again could exist, any standard against which it could be tested. (Orwell 82) Winston Smith, the protagonist, is having a frustrating conversation with an old man about life before the Revolution. He figures out that the Party has purposely set out to weaken the people’s memories in order to make them unable to challenge what the Party claims about the present. If there is no one who remembers life before the Revolution, then no one can say that the Party has failed. In reality, the Party has failed by forcing people to... ...of Nineteen Eighty-Four are not going to be forgotten any time soon. Psychological manipulation is quite possibly the most realistic of the themes. In conjunction with psychological manipulation is physical control. The Party is a totalitarian government and controls every aspect of life. Technology is yet another important theme. Technology is what gives the Party their power and influence. Big Brother, the symbol, as well as the telescreens are motifs that help drive the main conflict. Works Cited Knapp, John V. â€Å"Nineteen Eighty-Four† Critical Survey of Long Fiction. Ed. Carl Rollyson. Hackensack NJ: Salem Press Inc, 2000. 2451-2452. Magill, Frank N. Ed. â€Å"Nineteen Eighty-Four† Masterpieces of World Literature. New York NY: Harper Collins Publishers, 1989. 582-585. Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York NY: Penguin Books Inc., 1977.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Dr. King

In 1963, after a protest in Birmingham calling attention to the need for equal rights for African Americans, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote an open letter to the coalition of Christian ministers in the American South.   Dr. King found himself the subject of extreme criticism from his fellow clergymen for his protest, specifically the illegality of the   protest. In his essay, Dr. King attempts to appeal to the ethical, emotional and logical sides of countrymen to show them that the laws that he was breaking were unfair and unjust in and of themselves. This paper will critically examine the appeals that Dr. King made and the effectiveness of those appeals.Dr. King begins his argument in favor of his actions with an appeal to the ethical considerations of his audience. â€Å"Since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms,â €  (King 1963).   He begins by telling his audience that he respects their motives and hopes that they will respect his.This is an important part of the ethical argument in that King wants immediately to establish that this was not a rash action and that he is not defending himself lightly. Next, he seeks to establish his own credentials and his right to be in Birmingham. King mentions that people in Birmingham have complained of his coming in as an outsider and he immediately wants to clarify that he was invited in.â€Å"I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates.Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here† (King 1963)By first establishing that his organization has ties in Birmingham and that he was invited, King dismisses the idea that he is just an outside rebel rouser. After establishing his right to be there, king establishes the authority under which his ethical decisions will be made. â€Å"Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their â€Å"thus saith the Lord† far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town,† (King 1963) . King calls to mind the ethical standard by which he wants to be judged: the Bible and his faith. Finally, King argues why his action is ethically justified.â€Å"Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere,† (King 1963). With this argument he points out the ethical concern that most directly led to the Birmingham protest, injustice.King also appeals to the emotions of his audience. â€Å"Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of Birmingham's economic community. In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants–for example, to remove the stores' humiliating racial signs.† (King 1963). He begins by gently reminding them of the racial humiliation that was an integral part of the South at the time. Next, he moves onto the violence that th e average African American in the South had witness or heard.   And finally, he moves on to the emotional appeal of children, before turning the emotionally-charged words filled with hatred and familiar to all Southern â€Å"Negroes†.â€Å"But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters†¦when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to c oncoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: â€Å"Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?†; †¦when your first name becomes â€Å"nigger,† your middle name becomes â€Å"boy† (however old you are) and your last name becomes â€Å"John,† and your wife and mother are never given the respected title â€Å"Mrs.†; (King 1963)Throughout the essay, king also appeals to the logic of his audience. First, he points out that Southern blacks had attempted to sue the system, but that the system excluded them from it and therefore they could not change the system from within. Then, King begins to use statistics to back up his arguments, beginning first with the sheer lack of black voters in the South. â€Å"An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority com pels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation.A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state's segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered.† (King 1963). King also argues that unjust laws or just laws which are unjustly enforced must be changed and that people should take whatever action is reasonable to change them. By providing specific examples, he makes it hard for any logical person to disagree.Though King’s â€Å"I have a dream† speech is more famous than his â€Å"Letter F rom a Birmingham Jail†, it is in this essay that he sets the tone for the entire civil rights movement. In his use of emotional appeal, he moves beyond sheer anger to the disappointment and pain caused by segregation. His logical arguments are made soundly so that opponents cannot argue that he is simply hot-headed or breaking the law for the sake of personal gain. However, perhaps the most important and effective of his arguments come in his ethical arguments. When King illustrates gently, but with great strength, the unethical behavior that has led to the crisis in the South, he is non-accusatory and simply states how things ought to be. This above all else is what marks the greatness of this essay.

Feminist and Other Psychoanalytic Trends Essay

The contributions of the socio- heathenish approaches to personality, by theorists care Karen Horney, Nancy Chodorow and Margaret Mahler, focusing on social and cultural variables, are compared with that of biologically driven theories. Freud had unexpended psychoanalysis focuse on the social occasion played by biology in personality outgrowth. While biology is authorized to undivided biography, so, too, are an individuals life history and the presiding cultural and historic context (Kroger, 1996, p. 16).Karen Horney departed from some of the introductory principles of Sigmund Freud and suggested social and cultural factors for neuroses and personality disorders. She differed from Freuds view of female psychology and his substandard portrayal of wowork force. Horneys existentization that, Freudian female psychology was only an starting time of male psychology, to be expected in a male-oriented culture, came when she ascertaind kidskinbirth (Foty, 2008, para. 1). She gave the judgment of womb envy, opposite to the theory of genus Phallus envy, abandoned by Freud.In her book, The mental case Personality of Our Time (1937), Horney phrased that emphasis is instal on the actually existing conflicts and the neurotics attempts to solve them, in the sermon of neurosis. (p. vii). She did not discount the importance of tykehood experiences, as theorized by Freud, but disliked the one-sided fascination that childhood held for psychoanalysts (p. vii). consort to Freud the tussle between id, ego and superego exsert to disturbance.However, Karen Horney in her book, Self Analysis (1942), utter that, Freuds disbelief in a wish for ego development is associate up with his postulate that the ego is a weak agency tossed about among the claims of instinctual drives, of the external world and of a forbidding moral whizz (p. 23). She disagreed with this analysis and theorized that the infants anxiety is caused when the child feels isolated and alone in a hostile world. She argued that, Parental immobility, a lack of warmth and affection in childhood causes anxiety (as cited in Boeree, 2006, evolution section, para. 2). match to Horney, children have two fundamental commands need for affection and approval, and need for safety. These two take are the nearly important amongst the ten needs that she gave for transaction with anxiety and they emerge due to indifference or lack of warmth from parents. She gave threesome coping strategies for dealing with these needs moving-toward, which is yielding type, comparable to Adlers getting or leaning approach moving-against, which is the hostile type, similar to Adlers ruling or predominate type moving-away, which is the detached type, similar to Adlers avoiding type ( Boeree, 2006, system section).Freud brought forth the individual from the 19th-century family with his concept of the personal unconscious, reformulating ideas about sexuality and sexuality. Thereafter feminism gaine d bear from psychoanalysis, which was it self transformed by war, revolution, socio-cultural change, and theories given by Horney and Melanie Klein (Lieberman, 2004). Melanie Kleins Object dealing conjecture emphasized the ego development of the children, during their early eld, as cosmos colligate to parts of target areas rather than the whole.Margaret Mahler conducted extensive observations of anicteric bugger off-infant and mother-toddler dyads in a naturalistic stage setting to delineate the process by which the child differentiates itself from its primary care-taker and becomes an autonomous person(Kroger,1996, p. 51). According to Mahler, separation and individuation are the processes used by infants in the early years of life. Separation is the childs process from a symbiotic fusion with the mother, whereas individuation is those operations marking the childs assumption of his own individual characteristics (p.51). Mahler gave four-spot stages of separation- indi viduation process Differentiation (5 to 10 months), which is the beginning of the difference between self and the primary caregiver Practicing (10 to 16 months), which tag the emergence of motor abilities Rapprochement (16 to 24 months), during which, children first get a real sense that they are individuals, separate from their mothers (Mahler, 2007) integrating and object Constancy (24 to 36 months), in which the kids know that their mother will be back and are not noisome in their absence.Two processes take wander at this last phase The achievement of a definite individuality, and the growth of a certain degree of object constancy(Kroger, 1996, p. 53). In her book The education of Mothering, Nancy Chodorow (1978), another Object Relations theorist, pointed out, women experience a sense of self-in-relation that is in stemma to mens creation of a self that wishes to deny relation and radio link(p. viii). Mothers by lawfulness of their sexuality, experience daughters like t hem and sons unlike.Consequently, girls and boys attribute these differences and transform these unconscious maternal communications through their own intra-psychic capacities. (p. viii). This leads to men being more independent and women more empathetic. The girls bail bond to her mother is preoedipalconcerned with early mother-infant relational issues and issues of dependence and individuation. A male childs attachment to his mother is oedipal, expressing his sense of difference and masculine oppositeness to her. (p. 97).Freuds Oedipus complex was to explain sexual identity operator whereas the individuation process explains the childs gender identity. Separation-individuation theory outlines the importance of maintain in human development (Edward, Ruskin & Turrini, 1991, p. 3). The kinship between mother and child during babyhood plays an integral role in the childs growth in posterior years. separation-individuation assumes different developmental pathways for men and wom en, with men cultivating a personality style that emphasizes indecorum and women cultivating one in which attachment needs take precedence(Gnaulati & Heini, 2001).References Boeree, C. G. (2006). Personality theories. In Shippensburg University my website. Retrieved meet 10, 2008, from http//webspace. ship. edu/cgboer/perscontents. html. Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering Psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender. Berkeley and Los Angeles, atomic number 20 University of California Press. Edward, J. , Ruskin, N. , Turrini, P. (1992). Separation/Individuation Theory and application. (2nd ed. ). New York Brunner-Routledge. Foty, G. R. (1988). A Mind of Her deliver The Life of Karen Horney.Smithsonian, 19, n5. p. 127(2). Retrieved March 15, 2008, from British Council Journals Database via Gale http//find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodId=IPS Gnaulati, E. , & Heine, B. J. (2001). Separation-individuation in late adolescence an investigation of gender and ethnic di fferences. The Journal of Psychology, 135, 1. p. 59(12). Retrieved March 15, 2008, from British Council Journals Database via Gale http//find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodId=IPS Horney, K. (1942). Self analysis. London Routledge & Kegan capital of Minnesota Ltd. Horney, K. (1937). The neurotic personality of our time.London Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. , Ltd. Kroger, J. (1996). indistinguishability in adolescence The balance between self and other. London Routledge. Lieberman, E. J. (2004). Zaretsky, Eli. Secrets of the Soul A affable and Cultural History of Psychoanalysis. Library Journal, 129, 10. p. 162(1). Retrieved March 15, 2008, from British Council Journals Database via Gale http//find. galegroup. com/ips/start. do? prodId=IPS Mahlers Theory of Development. (2007). KidsDevelopment. Retrieved March 15, 2008, from http//www. kidsdevelopment. co. uk/MahlersDevelopmentTheory. html