Wednesday, April 1, 2020

How orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the War on Terror

Introduction This paper seeks to establish information on how orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of War on Terror. The subject of terrorism is widespread in the entire globe, and most people have come up with varied ways and techniques to fight terrorism. In this paper, we focus on these methods with emphasis on the constructions of Muslim bodies either in the Muslim regions or outside their regions, which aim as rescuing the innocent Muslims.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the ‘War on Terror’ specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More We will look at how these Muslim bodies establish, and the role their founders expect them to play in regards to the War on Terror. For the purposes of this paper, we will look in depth in at the Muslim religion, their practices, and any other activities that are strictly in line w ith the religion. In addition, the paper will analyze the contribution and impact of the Muslim religion on the war on terror and the effect this will have on the whole world. The mention of terrorism sparks the thoughts violence, murder, bombs, and many other inhuman actions, which are taking place in the current world. Terrorism is an international matter that all countries seek to address irrespective of whether they have been victims or not. The subject of terrorism goes back in time, and it is not a matter that can be said to have started recently. Many countries have been victims of terrorism with most innocent people losing their lives and properties. Terrorism is a counter reaction from the people of the East in regards to the west having power all nations in the world. The population of the Eastern region is majorly Muslim who oppose to the Western power and in this case establishing ways in which to retaliate to the western powers. Terrorism gave birth to the ideology of w ar on terror, which is a Western technique of eliminating the terrorism activities. War on terror is a term, which most people use while referring to the international military campaign whose members include the United Kingdom, United States, and other North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s commonly abbreviated as NATO. The main origin of war on terror was for the purposes of wiping out al-Qaeda and other supporting militant organizations. In describing the war on terror, it encompasses all aspects of life as it aims at eliminating the terrorist groups, which are led by the al-Qaeda, and other extremist groups. Most people describe war on terror as a global military, legal, political, and ideological fight back against terrorist groups and any regimes linked to such groups. These regimes support the terrorist groups by providing them with financial and technical support in their terrorist activities against other nations. Discussion The issue of terrorism is an international af fair affecting all countries and its occupants from Europe to Africa to Asia. We will briefly look at the origin of war on terror and the basis of these operations. The al-Qaeda network which is the backbone of terrorism around the world was started Afghanistan in the period of December 1979 to 1996 February, and its main aim was to train their operatives in destroying the West powers.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Later on the group WIFJAJC- World Islamic Front for Jihad Jews and Crusaders started spreading their manifestos in Afghanistan, which its considerable population are Islamic extremist- Taliban. The leader of the group, Osama bin Laden, declared war on Israel, the American states, and the west. These were not empty threats as it followed with bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, which targeted the US embassies of the two countries in Africa. The then president of Unite d States Bill Clinton launched an operation against terrorism targeting the al-Qaeda groups. These did not deter the terrorist groups from accomplishing their mission as their followed significant attacks on different countries with the notable September 11th attack, which left several people dead. At this point, the then sitting president- George Bush launched the war on terror in an effort to wipe out the terrorist groups. War on terror has several objectives the main one being conquering terrorists like Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and Osama bin Laden by destroying any organizations under their leadership. In addition, the war on terror aims at stopping any sponsorship towards countries taking part in terrorist activities or hosting terrorists, protecting United States citizens abroad or at home, and reduce the nourishing conditions that terrorists take advantage of in attacking people and countries. In an effort to achieve the above objectives, the United States and other supporting cou ntries and organizations had to come up with techniques and ways in which their missions could come true. Apart from negotiations with other countries there had to be a method in which the war on terror can get wind of the plans that these terrorists group had. The network of these terrorists groups had expanded, and it was not possible to be a fighter from the outside. One had to fight from inside and that meant understanding most of the things about these terrorist groups. the United States government had deployed its military in the regions where the terrorist actions had origin but this was only causing more deaths and violence than eliminating terrorism. As indicated earlier in the paper, these terrorist groups and people comprised of people who profess the Muslim religion. There are several religions in the world, and one of them is the Muslim religion. Each religion has its principles and rules and so does the Muslim religion. As Muslim, there are certain things that they bel ieve in which makes them participate in the terrorist activities. One of these beliefs is that the more a person murders many people the more his or her chances of going to heaven. It was a sign of martyr Dom when sacrificing one’s soul and life in an effort to fighting the enemy. For this reason, we have heard of many suicide bombings carried out by Muslims in airplanes, trains, vehicles, and buildings.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on How orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the ‘War on Terror’ specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More To the participants they believe by so doing they will go to heaven and it makes them pure. The Muslim religion has followers all over the world with many of its followers being in the Middle East, part of Africa especially at the horn of Africa. During the formation, of its networks the al-Qaeda group managed to get a grip of almost the en tire world having links in every part of the world. This was wide spread, that it was difficult to locate the masterminds of the terrorist activities, which were taking place in the past times. Under the Muslim religion, we have different categories depending on the devotion of people to the religion. Notable is two categories of extremists and the flexible ones who both profess to the same religion-Muslim. It is believed that the extremist Muslims form a substantial part of the terrorist groups, which engage in the terrorist activities. This fact has led to several arguments concerning the connection between Islam as a religion and terrorism, which has grown in to a political affair. This issue is so widespread that it can be seen in places of work, travel areas, and many other areas. For instance, in an airport a Muslim will be subjected to serious scrutiny as compared to any other person just because of the link between Islam and terrorism. The situation is so inept that people f ear being on a plane, or vehicle with any person whose dress implies he or she is a Muslim (Butchart, 1998, p. 62). The war on terror has in the recent past come up with ways in which it can get in the Islam community and understand its undertakings. For this reason, there has been a widespread of orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies, which inform the rhetoric of war on terror. Basing on the aspect of being an insider fighter the war on terror proprietors opted to forming Muslim bodies, which in turn will inform them of the undertakings of the terrorist groups. The main aim for the formation of these Muslim bodies is to be part of the activities of the terrorist groups, which have Muslims as their members. When talking about Muslim bodies we mean the organizations and groups, which seem to be promoting the Muslim, human rights, and interests. These bodies can vary from region to the region, and from time to time as long, the proprietors of the war on terror achieve their missi on. The most common element in these Muslim bodies is that they all act as informers of the people behind the war on terror. Orientalist construction of Muslim bodies means the formation of organizations and groups, which have the culture or character of peoples of the western, central, eastern, or Asia region. This representation in these Muslim bodies eventually portrays the stereotypic and colonialist character because the founders of the war will majorly lead the members of the bodies on terror.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The principles and guidelines of these Muslim bodies depict the Islamic following but with all the wrong intentions of wanting to get hold of the masterminds of terrorism in the world. These bodies can be varied and most of them maybe promoting peace in Islamic regions, fighting for the rights of the innocent Muslims, speaking on behalf of the Muslim people and many other roles. These are done at international level so that the entire world can have a view of their intentions and missions. The bodies may comprise of both the moderate and extremist Muslim, and they strictly subscribe to the religion’s following. The major role of these Muslim bodies is to inform the people acting on the war on terror. In this section of the paper, we will analyze the methods and techniques employed in establishing these Muslim bodies of war on terror informers. We will also analyze the formation of the bodies, its members, their guidelines, and their area of coverage (Ayotte Husain, 2005, p. 117). One of the major factors the founders keep in mind while forming the Muslim bodies is the Islamic history. This is one religion full of disputes and engaging in it calls for so much attention and care. The most sensitive part is the idea of Islam having the two categories of moderate Muslims and extremists. Because of this reason, there are trends within the Islam community that have a confusing relationship to violence and other justifications for its functioning or even extol it. The presence of the intense conflict within Islamic community over its relation to violence has led to the positioning of Muslims in the world. As a result, there has been a veritable discrimination of the Muslim people in the world by other religions and people. Such a history will require critical measures in ensuring this discrimination does not occur and instead it should embrace the Islamic people like any other community or religion. Formation of these Muslim bodies should base their principle s on this fact and ensure that the bodies offer ground for the Muslim people to feel part of the world and community. The bodies should not promote matters of discrimination against the religion and its principles and guidelines should be based on the Muslim teachings. There exists a genuine threat of terrorism in the world, and for this reason, the founders of these Muslim bodies cannot dispute the issue of the existing relationship between terrorism and Islam. The reason for making the distinction between Islam and terrorism is that terrorism has its roots in the Muslim religion as its main people are the masterminds of the terrorism activities. In so doing the formation of the Muslim bodies will have to keep in mind the aspect of terrorism having its roots in the Muslim religion. This is the backbone of forming these Muslim bodies, as they will be in touch with any activities of terrorism. By having links with such bodies, it will be easier for the proprietors of war on terror to monitor the progress of any terrorism activities. In short that will reflect the inside work of fighting terrorism. The orientalist constructions of the Muslim bodies have been rampant in the whole world due to the widespread of Muslim network and their activities. The construction of Muslim bodies is a depiction of the western perspective of the east part of the world. Orientalist construction of Muslim bodies is a form of critical analysis key to comprehending the ideology of war on terror as it deals with the relationship between depictions by Westerners of non-Western subjects. Western constructions of Easterners in the name of Muslim bodies have been instruments of justifying colonialism and conquest for the past two centuries. The constructions of Muslim bodies have the element of race and gender, and their operation continue to operate in contemporary times. In their formation the orientalist keep in mind the aspect of race and gender as they play a key role in passing infor mation to the proprietors of war on terror. This is important so that the formation will include all races and gender to avoid any source of discrimination. Gender is an decisive factor in fighting the terrorism activities as both women and men play a prominent role in informing the United States as they fight the terrorist activities (Bilge, 2010, p. 23). There are several examples of United States Muslim bodies whose construction is to inform the anti-terrorism groups. In these constructions, the element of gender is as indispensable as their deployment is vital in facilitating intervention on the War on terror. For instance, we have bodies like the Feminist Majority Foundation, which supports the voiceless women who are victims of the activities of terrorism. In so doing, the women in this body will work hand in hand with their male counterparts in promoting their rights and interests to the extent that they will be insiders in the terrorists’ activities. The body comprise s majorly of Muslim women who work towards protecting other people whose rights are infringed because of the terrorist actions. By the United States forming such an organization, it aims at using the weak parties in the Muslim community to gain information of the undertakings of the terrorism groups. The terrorism groups may consider the bodies as their source to knowing the intentions of the United States and in the process let out their information or secrets while trying to consider their Muslim counterparts. At this point, the founders of these Muslim bodies will have attained their mission of getting information concerning the terrorist groups or their masterminds. These Muslim bodies have objectives, which are more beneficial to the anti-terrorism groups than to their fellow extremist Muslims. For instance, the group Feminist Majority Foundation has objectives of protecting the weaker sex in the Muslim community- women and in so doing the body is positioned as being superior t o the other groupings which are usually backward, full of masculinity, and barbaric. This factor of superiority makes the Muslim bodies popular in the regions where the extremist Muslim carry on their activities and hence act as a source of information to the anti-terrorism groups. In the end, the issue of gender has the purpose of preserving and promoting the United States masculinity power, and to substantiate violence under the standards of the War on Terror. The victims of the terrorism activities from the entire world will incline to the Muslim bodies whose founders are the anti-terrorism countries and people and in so doing cease supporting the terrorism organizations. In the above discussion, orientalism, which is a crucial analysis key in the decoding and understanding the values that form the visual relationships between westerners of non-Western subjects. Orientalist has the responsibility of dealing with the orient through making of statements, authorising their views, de scribing, teaching, settling, and ruling over it. In precise terms, orientalists are a representation of the western style for restructuring, dominating, and having authority over the orient. For this view, the orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies were characterised by western writings, which formed binary antagonism that did work well with the Eastern groups, which are mostly the terrorist groups. These Muslim bodies established by the United States and other anti-terrorism organizations come out to be the high point of civilization. Civilization in this sense embraced morality, rationality, and Christianity whose values are more liberal and acceptable by most people in the world. The Muslim bodies, on the other hand, made the Eastern organizations seem backward, irrational, lazy, despotic, and exotic. The knowledge that the Western people use in comprehending the Eastern people leads to the construction of a tradition which influences all further knowledge and learning about the terror activities. As a form, of critical analysis used to decode Western centric understandings orientalism is necessary to the United States war on terror because it unveils the methods in which non-Western traditions, cultures, and people live. Understanding the way in which these people live acts as the main source of information for the Americans in fighting terrorism because they understand the actions of their enemies. Most of the terrorists’ activities have their roots in the beliefs and convictions of the Muslim people and, therefore, in needs someone to understand their nature of living so that they can win the war against terrorism. As mentioned earlier, the Muslim groups will be majorly in the regions where these terrorists groups originate so that the informers can easily access their plans and activities. This, in turn, is the information used to fight the terrorists and their masterminds. For instance, it will be possible to have a clue on the location of the al-Qaeda group-Osama bin Laden because; in most cases, no one was aware of his exact location. The most noteworthy aspect in fighting terrorism is to have information especially on the masterminds of the terrorist groups. This is achievable by knowing the location of these masterminds, which has been an almost impossible aspect. There have been several speculations on the locations of Osama bin Laden for the longest time possible, and it took considerable intelligence and different regimes to locate his residence. There were speculations of him being in Africa at some point, and then the East was his favourite region for administering his activities and leadership. Osama bin Laden was eventually captured and killed in Afghanistan where he had been living with his family. This victory in the Obama regime can be attributed to the constructions of Muslim bodies in the East region, which may have leaked information of Osama whereabouts to the United States government. Fighting such a large network of people will be useless if one did not have sufficient information on their operations, beliefs, and convictions and this made it had for the anti-terrorism to win the war in the early stages of the war on terror. The foundation of Muslim bodies was a brilliant idea as it served as the origin of information to the United States government. In the recent times, there have been arguments on the functions and activities that the Muslim bodies play on the War of Terror. These concerns come about because of the representational codes and politics in the construction of Muslim bodies. It is a belief of most people that the construction of Muslim bodies is dangerous, uncivilized, and per-modern in American popular culture. The principles and guideline of these Muslim bodies lays on the ground of the War on Terror as the founders of these bodies seek to bring down the terrorists empire. As much as these Muslim bodies’ construction is aimed at protecting the Muslim w omen and children from the oppression of the Muslim Male counterparts’ people read Western interests in the formation of groups. Essentially, the Americans want to express their concern to the suffering innocent victims of terrorism while at the same using these Muslim bodies to get access to the undertakings of the terrorist groups. The whole world will view this step of forming Muslim bodies as a step towards American’s attaining peace in the East but forget to see the suffering they cause to the Muslims. In being the greatest founders of these so-called Muslim bodies, the United States ensures that its operations are essential to their fight against terrorism. The members of these groups are mostly elite Muslim women who will be instrumental in the creating of relationships between the United States government and the terrorists groups. Through the elite Muslim women, the Muslim bodies create awareness to the Muslim communities on the impact of the Islam extremistsà ¢â‚¬â„¢ activities on the living of the innocent moderate Muslims. Muslims are people who have strong devotions to their religion and will abide to the teachings of religion to the end. Some of their beliefs are the reason for the violent character of most Muslim people especially the male Muslims. On the other hand, the female Muslims are to be submissive and abide to their husbands demands and followings. All these followings the Muslims make possible without minding the suffering these strict religion causes them but instead they aim at fulfilling what they term as the prophetic teachings. For these reasons, the constructions of Muslim bodies base on the fact of liberating the Muslims from their sufferings in the name of civilization (Kuntsman, 2008, p. 133). There have been several views on the construction of Muslim bodies especially by the anti-terrorism powers. Most people view these Muslim bodies as a source of discrimination based on race and gender. This is because of the idea of including women in the operations of the Muslim bodies while neglecting the male Muslims who are also victims of terrorism activities. Other people view this as discrimination on the male Muslims who may also be relevant in the fight against terrorism. In most cases, people view the male Muslims as the main participants in the terrorism war waged against the United States and its associates. For this reason, there has been a lot of stigmatization of the Muslim bodies especially in the east where people do not accommodate the activities of the Muslim bodies. In this post September 11th eras, there is a lot of stigmatization of Muslim bodies and community especially where matters of security within and without borders of the United States is a paramount factor. In the end, the extremists Muslims view the Muslim bodies as a source of information to the anti-terrorism groups because they want to terminate their activities (Martin, 2010, p. 18). The most crucial question is why t he negative reception of Muslim bodies in the eastern region. There are various reasons as to why the Muslim extremists have negative alignments towards the Muslim bodies. Apart from the notion that Muslim bodies act as a base of information for the anti-terrorists powers, the Muslim bodies are not a true representation of the Muslim culture, traditions, and beliefs. In the name of civilization, these Muslim bodies have incorporated in their living the western culture thereby dropping the Muslim culture. Some of the beliefs are presently extraordinarily demeaning especially to the Muslim women who are less empowered compared to their male counter parts. The members of the Muslim bodies include embracing the western culture and the Christian way of living, which the extremists do not subscribe to, and hence they are bound to reject any progress of the Muslim bodies. Another crucial task at this point is the differentiating the extremists and moderate Muslims. The war on terror is a p olitical ideology, which sets out to fight any terrorism activities and in so doing fighting all Muslims irrespective of their regions or origins. We cannot dispute the participation of Muslims in the terrorism matter but then we cannot equally condemn all Muslims as terrorists. The critics of the War on Terror term some of the United States actions on other regions as inhuman and unfair because of the two parties having differing political ideologies. For instance, the war on terror the United States waged against Israel was a personal fight between the two countries because of their resources especially oil. In this case, there were Muslims who disputed this fight and deemed it to be against the international human rights whereby the Muslims were being discriminated on the grounds of being followers of a religion that has terrorists. A perfect example of this problem is Sheikh Yusef Al-Qaradawi who was against the war on terror in Britain. It is difficult to categorise this person as an extremist or moderate Muslim because of his views, which many people shared. The sheikh was also a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, which was a Muslim body, and, at the particular time, he was a supporter of the suicide bombing in Israel. In an interview, by the BBC Yusef explained his support for the Israel suicide bombing by terming it as a sign of martyr- Dom on the persons who took part in the suicide bombings. This is an action done in the name of God, and it is referred to as Jihad, which allows for destruction of the enemy by sacrificing one’s soul. After the above analyzing, of the activities and construction of Muslim bodies we now focus on the ways in which these bodies act as informers of the rhetoric war on terror. In the earlier discussion, we have established that the main bases of the construction of Muslim bodies are the gender and race factors, which are a significant factor in the war against terrorism. The ideology of race and gender were the main a reas in which the anti-terrorism powers could be able to capture the participation of the entire world because of the widespread terrorism network. The Muslim religion comprises of all the races both the white and black races and, therefore, using the racial aspect would ensure all races are factored in the war against terrorism. By having both, blacks and whites Muslims as members of the Muslim bodies will mean that the anti-terrorism powers have their links in the entire world. Through this reasoning, the getting of information on the various activities of the terrorists groups becomes easy. This is because the Muslim bodies will be against the actions of their extremist counter parts and, therefore, reveal any attempts they may have which may further tarnish the Muslim reputation. The civilization aspect in the Muslim bodies will be the main reason for the members revealing any hideous activities of the terrorist masterminds and groups. When analyzing the objectives of the war on terror the principal one was locating the terrorists groups, and masterminds and to put a stop to their terrorists’ activities and, for these reason, the Muslim bodies base their constructions on the objectives. By enlightening, the Muslim members of the Muslim bodies especially in their way of life will mean their way of reasoning will change. There will be better international relations between countries and regions where these Muslim bodies have base. Since the United States is a powerful member of the anti-terrorism groups, it is bound to have its way by demanding full disclosure of any terrorism plans and activities. There may be threats of reduced funding from the United States and other powers in the event that the countries or regions fail to comply with the aspect of being informers of any terrorism activities. A perfect example of such a country is Somalia in Africa, which has been a den of terrorism activities. Somalia has been a host to many wanted terrorists lik e Osama bin Laden, and it also promotes the existence of other terrorists groups like the al-shabaab. Any attempts to have Muslim bodies established in this country have been met with rejection because they do not support the ideologies of these bodies. In return, the United States government has stopped any funding help to Somalia and withdrawn all the military security in the country. For fear of such occurrences, most countries will abide to the objectives of the Muslim bodies and in so doing play the role of informers to the United States government. Countries, which support the activities of terrorism, are in abject poverty and no strong political system. Examples in this case are Afghanistan, Somalia, Pakistan, Iraq, and many other nations, which are full of terrorist activities. These countries’ population is majorly extremist Muslims who strongly oppose the western powers and influence in the whole world. This is the main reason for their terrorist activities, which a im at frustrating the US powers. On the subject of gender, the women in these Muslim bodies are a source of information to the US government. In the fight against terror, there is always the depiction of physical and structural violence unleashed upon the women of these regions. The war on terrorism in Afghanistan and other nations and regions demonstrate that the western influence has the aim of saving the voiceless women of these regions from the sufferings of terrorism acts. In this context, the women are the main victims of the terrorists’ activities and, therefore, the construction of the Muslim bodies majorly bases on having several women as its members. By including women in the Muslim bodies gives them the sense of empowerment, which the women lack, in their countries. By being in the Muslim bodies, the Muslim women can actively participate in international relations of countries, which to them have always been a role of the males. Therefore, the women play a key role of being informers of the United States government as it attempts to secure the females from oppression of the Taliban. The image of the Afghan woman who has been subjected to terrorism activities has played a vital role in various public arguments seeking to rationalize United States military intervention in the terrorism goings-on. In such instances, the women feel secured from the violent going-on of terrorists and, therefore, will not held back in providing any information to the anti-terrorism powers. The elite women will in turn play the role of enlightening their Muslim counterparts who are still tied in the dehumanizing practices of the Muslim culture and in the process gain relevant information, which will be useful on the war against terror. Another notable area in which the construction of Muslim bodies helped with information gathering is through leadership of the bodies. In an effort, to increase the number of members especially the Muslims there had to be Muslim leade rs in these Muslim bodies. Putting a Muslim leader to the Muslim bodies would a positive indication that the bodies actually had the Muslims interests at heart and it majorly aims at saving the people from oppression. Such Muslims are unquestionably the moderate Muslims whose culture, tradition, and the way of living are flexible and do not strictly abide to the Muslim religion. These leaders will seek audience from the leaders in the organizations having extremist Muslim and negotiate matters appertaining the terrorism activities. Through this process, the leaders will have access to the information, which can be relevant in bringing down the terrorists empires. The release of information may be a two-way traffic where by the other group will also expect to know the Western powers plans. In this case, the first person to react will be victorious in the eyes of other people. It is obvious from the above discussion that the construction of Muslim bodies serves the purposes of informi ng the rhetoric war on terror. This information gathering is through the contexts of race, leadership, and gender, which are matters relevant in the fight. The people with the notion that the Muslim bodies are informers of the US powers in the fight against terrorism is not wrong as this was a technique of winning the war and it seems to be working. The Muslim bodies have managed to break the extremist networks in the world by spreading the idea of civilization to the fellow Muslims who do not appertain to any side of the terrorism argument. The capture of Osama bin Laden is a prime example on the victory of the war on terror and it has led to more alliances to the Muslim bodies. The capturing of the Osama who was the mastermind of the terrorist activities meant the end of such things although there have been rumours of another leader having replaced Osama (Bhattacharyya, 2008, p. 76). As much as the Muslim bodies have been successful in its missions there has been a lot of criticis m in which people criticize the operations of the Muslim bodies. Muslim bodies have neglected the suffering of the moderate Muslims in the war zone areas especially those which the United States has withdrawn its financial and security purposes. This makes people to question the main reason for the formation of the Muslim bodies. The Muslim bodies concentrate more on wiping out terrorism instead of catering for the victims of the terrorist activities. The critics of these Muslim bodies state that the main reason for their formation is to get access to information of their enemies and in so doing forgetting to play the role of a saviour of the innocent Muslims suffering in the hands of the terrorists. The construction of the Muslim bodies majorly bases on information gathering, but, on the other hand, preaches the saving of suffering innocent Muslims. In a more serious step, the anti-terrorists powers make use of the information to destroy the terrorists’ empire. In the proces s, many lives are lost especially of the innocent Muslims who just wrongly placed in the world. If the main objective of these Muslim bodies is to save the innocent Muslims then their actions go against their objectives. This is because they cause more suffering by trying to destroy the terrorist empire. There is also the issue of security where there is great discrimination of Muslims irrespective of which side a person chooses. Muslims have been subjected to greater security discrimination especially in areas of travel, work, and residence. Discussions of gender, race, and religion have brought out the terms of engagement in the War on Terror. Due to these discussions, Muslim activists and feminists must connect with the dual subjugation of Islam Phobia that comes from religious extremism especially the Muslims. In the end, the Muslim women have been on the opposition side of the terrorism issue objecting all their reasons for destroying the United States powers. In an effort to a chieve the Muslim bodies’ objectives there have been great negotiations and contestations, which are made by the secular and faith-centred Muslim feminists. It is therefore evident that the Muslim women have played a major in contributing towards the war on terror under the umbrella of Muslim bodies. They have been instrumental is trying to end the fights and terrorism activities. This is because of the women being the weaker and vulnerable people in the societies where they end up being the victims of the terrorism activities. The elite Muslim feminists and activists have also been instrumental in rescuing the other female counterparts who have been tied down with the cultures of the Muslim religion. By introducing civilization to the oppressed Muslim women, they tend to abandon the extremist Muslim kind of life (Dyer, 1997, p. 78). Conclusion The above discussion supports the idea that the orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the war on terror. Orientalist form Muslim bodies with objectives of using the bodies to gather information, which will be helpful in the fight against terror. From the above discussion, it is evident that the Muslim bodies are informers of the anti-terrorism powers whose main objective is to terminate all the terrorist activities and leaderships. The formation of Muslim bodies is majorly to rescue the innocent Muslims from the terrorism activities, which affect both the moderate and extremist Muslims. The war on terror is a political strategy, which aims at conquering the terrorists in the world, and this was formed after a series of attacks from the terrorists on the United States powers. The war on terror has the responsibility of protecting the life of all United States citizens, both in the country and those staying abroad. From the above discussion, we have established that for there to be victory in the war on terror it requires for information on the going-on of the terrorist groups. For this reason, the anti-terrorist powers came up with the formation of Muslim bodies, which play the role of being informers of the United States government and other powers. We have analyzed the ways in which these Muslim bodies act as informers to the anti-terrorism powers. In such cases, the construction of Muslim bodies bases on the objectives of the war on terror as much as the overall mission is to protect the innocent Muslims caught in between the fights of terrorism. The United States powers employ the principles and guidelines, which will favour their mission on war on terror in the construction of Muslim bodies. It is evident that this is through the weaker side of the Muslim religion, which does not abide to the strict teachings of the Muslim religion. These ways are through the gender, race, and leadership aspects of the Muslim community. This offers a fertile ground for information, which can be an issue in fighting terrorism. The above methods ensure that the Muslim bodiesâ⠂¬â„¢ missions and goals are equally widespread like the terrorists network. The matters of race and gender are wide spread and they will be helpful in increasing the numbers of the Muslim bodies’ members. In the Muslim community, the women are victims of oppression both from the culture and terrorist activities, which their male counterparts actively take part. Therefore, by having objectives of securing the women from the oppression of the Muslim culture, the Muslim bodies can easily achieve the goal of getting information concerning the terrorism groups. The Muslim women have been instrumental in spear heading the negotiations for peace in Muslim regions where the war on terror has been rampant. References Ayotte, K J Husain, M E 2005, ‘Securing Afghan Women: Neo-colonialism, Epistemic Violence and the Rhetoric of the Veil’, NWSA Journal 17(3), 112-133. Bhattacharyya, G 2008, Dangerous Brown Men: exploiting sex, violence and feminism  In the ‘war on t error’, London: Zed Books. Bilge, S 2010, ‘Beyond Subordination vs. Resistance: An Intersectional Approach to the Agency of Veiled Muslim Women’, Journal of Intercultural Studies 31(1), 9-28. Butchart, A 1998, The anatomy of power: European constructions of the African body, London: Zed Books. Dyer, R 1997, White, London: Routledge. Kuntsman, A 2008, ‘The Soldier and the Terrorist: Sexy Nationalism, Queer Violence’,  Sexualities 11(1/2), 142-170. Martin, L 2010, ‘Bombs, bodies and bio politics: securitizing the subject at the airport security checkpoint’, Social Cultural Geography 11(1), 17-34. This essay on How orientalist constructions of Muslim bodies inform the rhetoric of the ‘War on Terror’ was written and submitted by user Artur0 to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

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