Saturday, September 7, 2019

Berry Aneurysms Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Berry Aneurysms - Case Study Example An aneurysm usually balloons and may rupture as the forces increase, which would lead to rupturing of the arterial wall and interior bleeding, a situation that is usually fatal and leads to death. Consequently, berry aneurysms results from rupture of arterial walls in the brain with fatal consequences that may cause brain death. The condition is usually caused by defects in the tunica media muscles and lack of enough support from the brain parenchyma, which creates unprecedented stress to the arterial walls causing rupture (Liebeskind, 2013). Therefore, cerebral aneurysm occur incases were the strength of the internal elastic membrane of the adventitia and the tunica media are compromised mainly resulting from abnormal arterial structure at arterial bifurcations, which results in rupture of the vessels at these sections due to blood pressure (Liebeskind, 2013). Causes of Berry Aneurysms Various conditions may lead to berry aneurysms, which include the following: Arterial malformations, aorta coarctation, inherited polycystic kidney diseases and other vascular problems. Others include sickle cell anemia, fungal infections, Marfan syndrome, hypertension among others (Liebeskind, 2013). However, not much is known about the actual causes of the aneurysms and the formation processes leading to ballooning and rupture, but smoking that leads to vascular changes and hypertension are major some of the major predisposing factors (Jonathan et al., 2006). The main characteristic of aneurysms is reduction in the tunica media leading to arterial structural defects.... the reduced membranes causes formation of balloon like structures at the branching parts of the arteries mainly at the lower part of the brain (Jonathan et al., 2006). Epidemiology Most berry aneurysms are small in that 60% to 80% of all cases may not rupture, meaning they pose much less danger to the patient (Connolly & Solomon, 2004). It is estimated that between 10 and 12 million adults in America have intracranial aneurysms, with berry aneurysms accounting for about 90% of all these cases (Liebeskind, 2013). Those over fifty years of age, females and cigarettes smokers are at a higher risk of the aneurysms (Vega et al., 2002). Consequently, as Vega et al noted, berry aneurysm are responsible for the highest cases of mortality and morbidity affecting about 90% of all intracranial aneurysms. However, more cases are being reported in younger patients and especially in cocaine, users or those with smaller arterial diameters (Nanda et al, 2000) Presentation Most aneurysms do not have any symptoms and they may not be reported until they rupture; hemorrhage through a fatal medical emergency remains the single most prevalent clinical presentation in most cases, accounting for about 58% of patients (Yamaura, Onno & Hirai, 2000). However, patients report acute headaches at the onset, which in some cases may also be associated with brief sessions of unconsciousness, vomiting, meningismus and nausea. These hemorrhages are also misdiagnosed as most patients have milder symptoms that indicate a warning leak before the aneurysm ruptures (Vega et al., 2002). Studies have reported rupture rates of between 1.4 to 1.9 %, though the rates are higher in aneurysms of more than 10mmm diameter. However, rupture has also been reported in cases where the aneurysms are less than 5 mm in

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